Kako so Rimljani odstranili grafite?

Kako so Rimljani odstranili grafite?


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Obstaja veliko dokazov, da so ljudje v starem Rimu slikali ali gravirali grafite.

Zanimalo me je, ali so oblasti odstranile grafite in kako so jih prebarvali ali oprali (in verjetno barvali prvotno barvo)?

Še posebej pri jedkanicah si ne predstavljam, da bi jih bilo enostavno odstraniti. Pri iskanju nisem našel nobenega vira, čeprav morda nisem bil dovolj temeljit.


Zgodovina grafitov

So grafiti živahna urbana umetnost ali nesmiselni vandalizem? Kdaj so grafiti prvič postali priljubljeni? Preberite ta članek, če želite izvedeti o zgodovini ulične umetnosti in slišati z obeh strani razprave.

Navodila

Najprej naredite pripravljalno vajo. Nato preberite besedilo in naredite druge vaje.

Priprava

Branje


Vsebina

Osnovne kategorije grafitov v arheologiji so:

  • Napisano grafitiali neuradni napisi.
  • Slike v grafitih.
  • Kompleksni, združeni ali grafiti z več kategorijami.

Sodobno poznavanje zgodovine starega Egipta je prvotno izhajalo iz napisov, literature (knjig mrtvih), faraonskih zgodovinskih zapisov in reliefov, iz tempeljskih izjav in iz številnih posameznih predmetov, bodisi faraonskih ali za egipčansko državljanstvo. Razvoj v dvajsetem stoletju je pripeljal do odkrivanja manj pogostih virov informacij, ki bi kazali na zapletenost medsebojnih odnosov faraona, njegovih namestnikov in državljanov.

Trije manjši viri so pomagali povezati glavne dele medsebojnih odnosov v starem Egiptu: ostraka, artefakti skarabejev in številni templji, kamnolomi itd. Reliefi in spisi z reliefi se pogosto dopolnjujejo z grafito, pogosto hierarhično in odkrite na mestih, ki jih običajno ne vidimo, na primer na vratih, hodniku, vhodu ali na stranski ali hrbtni strani predmeta.

Pozni (rimski) demotični grafiti Urejanje

Zelo pozno egipčanska demotika je bila uporabljena samo za ostrake, nalepke mumij, naročnine na grška besedila in grafite. Zadnji primer egipčanske demotike je iz Isidovega templja v Philaeju, datiran na 11. december 452 n. Glej demotsko "egipčansko".

Prvotni "Rotasov trg" je bil kasneje spremenjen v "Satorjev trg".

"Sator square" Uredi

Trg Sator je latinski grafit, ki ga najdemo na številnih lokacijah po vsem rimskem cesarstvu (npr. Pompeji, Dura-Europos) in drugod (Združeno kraljestvo).

To je palindrom-(teorija), ki tvori besedni kvadrat, ki ga je mogoče brati v kateri koli smeri (s teorijami). Za podrobnosti glejte Sator Arepo Tenet Opera Rotas. Razlog, da je palindrom morda le teorija, ker je kvadrat treba brati boustrofhedonically.

Kvadrat se glasi (boustrophedon):

R. O. T. A. S O. P. E. R. A T. E. N. E. T A. R. E. P. O S. A. T. O. R.

Kvadrat se glasi: Sator opera tenet tenet opera sator, in je približno: "The Veliki sejalec v roki drži vsa dela, vsa dela, ki jih Veliki sejalec drži v roki. "(Glej: Boustrophedon in Ceram Ref., str. 30. (Opomba: obratna smer po prvem" načelu ", da se načelo ponovi (nato nadaljujte z boustrophedon) .

Štiri vstopne točke, ena na stran, upodabljanja branje "Čarobni trg", "Satorjev trg": Prav, Levo, Navzgor, oz Navzdol. (Zato je Ceram zaključil, da gre za kristjan Satorjev trg.)

The "Satorjev trg"- analiza, Diagrami & amp "arheološko grafito primer ": [1]


Rimljani so svoje grafite jemali resno - zlasti falus

Podobo penisa si privoščimo dovolj dolgo in bo postal del naše narodne dediščine. Hitenje s snemanjem napisov v kambrijskem kamnolomu leta 207 je pritegnilo pozornost bogate zapuščine grafitov v Veliki Britaniji, ki so jo ustvarili Rimljani. Zidarji, ki so iskali kamnite bloke za bližnje utrdbe Hadrijanovega zidu, so izrezljali datum, falus in karikaturo oficirja. Niso bili sami, ko so pustili svoj pečat. Lov na podobe falusov je eden izmed velikih užitkov hoje po steni. Poglejte dovolj pozorno in jih lahko večkrat najdete po njeni liniji.

Grafiti so bili vedno znak rimskega življenja. V Rimu je bila pravica do žrebanja na splošno obravnavana kot državljanska prerogativa. V družbi, ki je bogata in razvrščena, je zagotovila bistven varnostni ventil. Slogani, ki so jih narisali po mestu, so postregli vsem, ki so lahko prebrali tako neusmiljeno umazanijo umazanije, da so se ljudje razburjali, da bi zaradi njene teže lahko padle stene. Tudi nepismeni bi iztrebljali spomenike tistih, ki so jih užalili. Vojaki so se na podlagi prisege, ki so jo prisegli ob prijavi v vojsko, odrekli pravicam, ki so bile bistvo državljanstva, vendar so bili številni legionarji, ki so si skušali olajšati dolgčas s praskanjem logotipov po stenah kamnoloma. Na ploščicah z imenom enote so pogosto zapisani grafiti. Čeprav je bila vojaška disciplina vedno huda, ni odpravila vseh navad civilnega življenja.

Zato so bili falusi, izklesani na premostitvah, kilometrskih gradovih in dvoriščih sedežev, tako nespremenljiva značilnost severne meje cesarstva. Zaskrbljenost nad moškimi genitalijami je bila pogosta po vsem rimskem svetu. V Rimu je bil falus povsod viden, ščitil je vrata kot simbol sreče, varoval križišča ali prestrašil ptice na vrtovih. Velikost Ramroda pri samcu je bila zelo cenjena. Velikodušno obdarjen moški, ki je udaril v kopalnico, bi lahko bil, kot je rekel en rimski pisatelj, pozdravljen z "živčnim aplavzom". Od državljana, opremljenega s takšnim orožjem, še posebej mladega, "pri katerem je bila določena stopnja živalskega duha", je težko pričakovati, da bo trajno oblečen.

To so priznali tudi najstrožji moralisti. Po rimskih mislih bordel ni bil tako drugačen od stranišča: ja, umazan in nespoštovan, ampak je služil bistvenemu namenu kot posoda za človeške odpadke. Moški ni mogel pričakovati, da bi ignoriral svoje spolne potrebe, kot pa poln mehur. Ne zaman je napisala isto besedo, meio, pomenijo tako "uriniranje" kot "ejakulacijo". Dva ali dva udarca, globoka in hitra, kot je zabadanje meča v drobovje, in posel bi bil opravljen. Rimski penis je bil nekaj močnega, mojstrskega, čudežnega.

Grafiti, najdeni v nekdanjem kamnolomu v Cumbriji, so bili vir kamna za Hadrijanov zid. Fotografija: Zgodovinska Anglija/PA

Seveda so bile posledice za provincialce na vojaškem območju, kot je tisto, ki se razteza južno od Hadrijanovega zidu, zaskrbljujoče. Falus, ki bi v Rimu lahko služil kot simbol sreče, se je lahko pojavil veliko bolj grozljivo, ko se je pojavil nad vrati v trdnjavi. Vsakemu domorodcu, ki je brez potrebne dokumentacije zašel v bližino Hadrijanovega zidu, bi to služilo kot posebno zastrašujoč opomin na rimsko moč. Posilstvo je bilo sprejet način, da vojska uveljavlja svojo oblast. Navsezadnje je posilstvo Boudicce in njenih hčera povzročilo krizo, ki je skoraj obrnila osvajanje Britanije.

Penis ni bil preprosto penis. Njegovo povezovanje z orožjem - meči, kopja, puščice - so vsi, ki so govorili latinsko, jemali kot nekaj samoumevnega. V jezik je bila vpeta domneva, da bi nekoga posilili, da bi ga zabodli. Ko se je boril, je legionar s svojim mečem udaril v želodec svojega sovražnika, mu razlil drobovje in razkrvavil nasprotnika. Nič manj kot meč je penis služil rimskemu vojaku kot simbol njegove moči.

Zidarji, ki so pred 1812 leti izrezljali falus na Pismeni skali iz želeja pri Hadrianovem zidu, se niso le prepustili malo drznosti v stilu Carry On. Dali so izjavo, ki bi jo razumel vsak domačin. Ob istem času, na nasprotnem koncu cesarstva, se je po Jordaniji vozil popotnik z imenom Lauricius. V Wadi Rumu se je ustavil, da bi izrezal svoj grafit. Tokrat ni bilo falusa, vendar je bilo sporočilo enako. "Rimljani vedno zmagajo."


Vsebina

"Graffiti" (običajno tako v ednini kot v množini) in redka ednina "graffito" izvirajo iz italijanske besede graffiato ("opraskan"). [6] [1] [2] Izraz "grafiti" se v umetnostni zgodovini uporablja za umetniška dela, ki so nastala s praskanjem modela na površino. Soroden izraz je "sgraffito" [7], ki vključuje praskanje po eni plasti pigmenta, da se pod njo razkrije druga. To tehniko so v prvi vrsti uporabljali lončarji, ki so zasteklili svoje izdelke in nato vanj opraskali obliko. V starih časih so na stenah z ostrim predmetom izklesali grafite, čeprav so včasih uporabljali kredo ali premog. Beseda izvira iz grščine γράφειν -grafein—Pomeni "pisati". [8]

Izraz grafiti prvotno se nanašajo na napise, risbe in podobno, ki jih najdemo na stenah starodavnih grobov ali ruševin, kot v rimskih katakombah ali v Pompejih. Uporaba besede se je razvila tako, da vključuje vse grafike, uporabljene na površinah na način, ki predstavlja vandalizem. [9]

Edini znani vir safaitskega jezika, starodavna oblika arabščine, je iz grafitov: napisi so bili opraskani na površini skal in balvanov v pretežno bazaltni puščavi južne Sirije, vzhodne Jordanije in severne Savdske Arabije. Safaitski izvira od prvega stoletja pred našim štetjem do četrtega stoletja našega štetja. [10] [11]

Sodobni grafiti

Prvi znani primer "modernega sloga" [ potrebno pojasnilo ] grafiti preživijo v starogrškem mestu Efez (v današnji Turčiji). Lokalni vodniki pravijo, da gre za oglas za prostitucijo. Na grafitih, ki se nahajajo v bližini mozaičnega in kamnitega prehoda, je odtis roke, ki je nejasno podoben srcu, skupaj z odtisom stopala, številko in izrezljano podobo ženske glave.

Stari Rimljani so na stenah in spomenikih izrezljali grafite, katerih primeri so preživeli tudi v Egiptu. Grafiti v klasičnem svetu so imeli vsebinsko drugačne konotacije, kot jih nosijo v današnji družbi. Starodavni grafiti so prikazovali stavke ljubezenskih izjav, politično retoriko in preproste misli v primerjavi z današnjimi priljubljenimi sporočili družbenih in političnih idealov. [12] Izbruh Vezuva je ohranil grafite v Pompejih, ki vključujejo latinska prekletstva, čarobne uroke, izjave o ljubezni, žalitve, abecede, politične slogane in znane literarne citate, ki ponujajo vpogled v starodavno rimsko ulično življenje. En napis navaja naslov ženske po imenu Novellia Primigenia iz Nucerije, prostitutke, očitno velike lepote, katere storitve so bile zelo povpraševane. Drugi prikazuje falus, ki ga spremlja besedilo, mansueta tene ("ravnaj previdno").

Razočarana ljubezen se je v antiki znašla tudi na stenah:

Quisquis amat. veniat. Veneri volo frangere costas
fustibus et lumbos debilitare deae.
Si potest illa mihi tenerum pertundere pectus
nehaj ego non possim caput illae frangere fuste?

Kdor ljubi, pojdi v pekel. Veneri želim zlomiti rebra
s palico in ji deformira boke.
Če mi lahko zlomi nežno srce
zakaj je ne morem udariti po glavi?

Starodavni turisti, ki so obiskali citadelo iz 5. stoletja v Sigiriyi na Šrilanki, so med 6. in 18. stoletjem narisali več kot 1800 posameznih grafitov. Vgravirani na površini Zrcalnega zidu vsebujejo delce proze, poezije in komentarje. Zdi se, da je večina teh obiskovalcev iz družbene elite: članov kraljestva, uradnikov, poklicev in duhovščine. Bili so tudi vojaki, lokostrelci in celo nekateri kovinarji. Teme segajo od ljubezni do satire, prekletstva, duhovitosti in jamranja. Mnogi dokazujejo zelo visoko stopnjo pismenosti in globoko spoštovanje umetnosti in poezije. [14] Večina grafitov se nanaša na freske polgolih samic, ki jih najdemo tam. Eden se glasi:

Mokro s hladnimi kapljicami rose
dišeče s parfumom iz cvetov
prišel je nežen vetrič
jasmin in lokvanj
ples na spomladanskem soncu
stranski pogledi
žensk zlate barve
zabodite v moje misli
nebesa sama po sebi me ne morejo prevzeti
saj ga je ujela ena deklica
med petsto, ki sem jih videl tukaj. [15]

Med starodavnimi političnimi grafiti so bile arabske satirične pesmi. Yazid al-Himyari, umajadski arabski in perzijski pesnik, je bil najbolj znan po tem, da je svojo politično poezijo pisal na stenah med Sajistanom in Basro, kar je pokazalo močno sovraštvo do omajadskega režima in njegovega walis, ljudje pa so jih brali in razširjali zelo široko. [16] [ potrebno pojasnilo ]

Raven pismenosti je pogosto vidna pri grafitih

Zgodovinske oblike grafitov so pomagale razumeti način življenja in jezike preteklih kultur. Napake pri črkovanju in slovnici teh grafitov ponujajo vpogled v stopnjo pismenosti v rimskih časih in namig na izgovorjavo govorjene latinščine. Primeri so CIL IV, 7838: Vettium Firmum / aed[ilem] quactiliar[ii] [sic] rog[Mravlja]. Tu se "qu" izgovarja "co". 83 kosov grafitov najdenih na CIL IV, 4706-85 dokazujejo sposobnost branja in pisanja na družbenih ravneh, kjer pismenosti morda ne bi pričakovali. Grafiti se pojavijo na peristilu, ki ga je arhitekt Crescens preoblikoval v času izbruha Vezuva. Grafite sta pustila tako delovodja kot njegovi delavci. Bordel pri CIL VII, 12, 18–20 vsebuje več kot 120 kosov grafitov, od katerih so nekateri delo prostitutk in njihovih strank. Gladiatorska akademija pri CIL IV, 4397 je bil narisan z grafiti, ki jih je pustil gladiator Celadus Crescens (Suspirium puellarum Celadus thraex: "Tračan Celadus dekleta vzdihuje.")

Še en kos iz Pompejev, napisan na steni gostilne o lastniku obrata in njegovem vprašljivem vinu:

Najemodajalec, naj bodo vaše laži zlonamerne
Prinesi uničenje na glavo!
Tudi sami pijete nemešano vino,
Namesto tega vodo prodajate svojim gostom. [17]

Grafitov niso izdelovali le Grki in Rimljani: mesto Tikov v Gvatemali vsebuje primere starodavnih grafitov Majev. Vikinški grafiti so preživeli v Rimu in na gomili Newgrange na Irskem, Varagovac pa je njegovo ime (Halvdan) v runah opraskal na ograji v Aja Sofiji v Carigradu. Te zgodnje oblike grafitov so prispevale k razumevanju življenjskega sloga in jezikov preteklih kultur.

Grafiti, znani kot Tacherons, so bili pogosto opraskani na romanskih skandinavskih cerkvenih stenah. [18] Ko so se renesančni umetniki, kot so Pinturicchio, Raphael, Michelangelo, Ghirlandaio ali Filippino Lippi, spustili v ruševine Neronove Domus Aurea, so izrezljali ali naslikali svoja imena in se vrnili, da bi začeli grottesche slog dekoracije. [19] [20]

Obstajajo tudi primeri grafitov, ki se pojavljajo v ameriški zgodovini, na primer Independence Rock, nacionalna znamenitost vzdolž Oregonske poti. [21]

Kasneje so francoski vojaki svoja imena izklesali na spomenikih med napoleonsko kampanjo v Egiptu v 1790 -ih. [22] Lord Byron preživi na enem od stebrov Posejdonovega templja na rtu Sounion v Atiki v Grčiji. [23]

Grafitska karikatura politika v starodavnih Pompejih

Ironičen stenski napis, ki komentira dolgočasne grafite

Križarski grafiti v cerkvi svetega groba

Na sodobni slog grafitov je močno vplivala kultura hip hopa [24] in nešteto mednarodnih slogov, ki izhajajo iz grafitov podzemne železnice v Philadelphiji in New Yorku, vendar je v dvajsetem stoletju veliko drugih tradicij opaznih grafitov. Grafiti so se že dolgo pojavljali na stenah stavb, v straniščih, železniških vagonih, podzemnih železnicah in mostovih.

Najstarejši znani primer sodobnih grafitov so "monikerji", ki jih najdemo na vagonih vlakov, ki so jih hoboji in železničarji ustvarili od poznih 1800 -ih. Vzdevke Boza Texino je dokumentiral režiser Bill Daniel v svojem filmu iz leta 2005, Kdo je Bozo Texino?. [25] [26]

Nekateri grafiti imajo svojo pestrost. V drugi svetovni vojni je bil napis na steni v trdnjavi Verdun videti kot ponazoritev odziva ZDA dvakrat v generaciji na krivice starega sveta: [27] [28]

Austin White - Chicago, Ill - 1918
Austin White - Chicago, Ill - 1945
To je zadnjič, da želim tukaj napisati svoje ime.

Med drugo svetovno vojno in desetletja pozneje je bil stavek "Kilroy je bil tukaj" s spremljajočo ilustracijo razširjen po vsem svetu, ker so ga uporabile ameriške čete in se na koncu prelevil v ameriško popularno kulturo. Kmalu po smrti Charlieja Parkerja (vzdevek "Yardbird" ali "Bird") so se po New Yorku začeli pojavljati grafiti z besedami "Bird Lives". [29] Študentski protesti in splošna stavka maja 1968 so zaznamovali Pariz z revolucionarnimi, anarhističnimi in situacijskimi gesli, kot so L'ennui est contre-révolutionnaire ("Dolgčas je kontrarevolucionarno"), izraženo v slikanih grafitih, plakatu in šabloni. Takrat so v ZDA druge politične fraze (na primer "Free Huey" o Black Panther Huey Newton) za kratek čas postale priljubljene kot grafiti na omejenih območjih, ki so jih pozabili. Priljubljen grafit zgodnjih sedemdesetih je bil "Dick Nixon Before He Dicks You", ki odraža sovražnost mladinske kulture do tega ameriškega predsednika.

Vojak s tropskimi fantazijskimi grafiti (1943–1944)

Grafiti sovjetske vojske na ruševinah Reichstaga v Berlinu (1945)

Pojav aerosolne barve

Rokenrol grafiti so pomemben podžanr. Znameniti grafit dvajsetega stoletja je bil napis v londonski cevi z napisom "Clapton is God" v povezavi s kitaristom Ericom Claptonom. Stavek je oboževalec na steni na postaji v Islingtonu v podzemlju narisal s pršenjem jeseni 1967. Grafit je bil posnet na fotografiji, na kateri pes urinira po steni.

Grafiti so se v sedemdesetih letih začeli povezovati tudi s punk rock gibanjem proti ustanavljanju. Skupine, kot sta Black Flag in Crass (in njihovi privrženci), so na široko označevali svoja imena in logotipe, številni punk nočni klubi, počepi in klepetalnice pa slovijo po svojih grafitih. Konec osemdesetih let je obrnjen steklo Martini, ki je oznaka za punk band Missing Foundation, bil najbolj vseprisoten grafit v spodnjem Manhattnu [ po kom? ]

Vlaki podzemne železnice New York City so bili pokriti z grafiti (1973)

Širjenje hip hop kulture

Style Wars upodabljali ne le znane grafite, kot so Skeme, Dondi, MinOne in ZEPHYR, ampak tudi okrepili vlogo grafitov v nastajajoči hip-hop kulturi v New Yorku, tako da so v film vključili znane zgodnje break-dance plesne skupine, kot je Rock Steady Crew, in predstavili rap v zvočni posnetek. Čeprav so mnogi policisti newyorške policijske uprave menili, da je ta film kontroverzen, so Style Wars še vedno priznane kot najbolj plodna filmska predstavitev dogajanja v mladi kulturi hip hopa v zgodnjih osemdesetih letih. [30] Fab 5 Freddy in Futura 2000 sta leta 1983 v okviru newyorške rap turneje odnesla hip hop grafite v Pariz in London. [31]

Pojavijo se šablonski grafiti

V tem obdobju se je pojavil tudi nov žanr grafitov s šablono. Nekatere prve primere so leta 1981 ustvarili grafitisti Blek le Rat v Parizu, leta 1982 Jef Aerosol v Toursu (Francija) [ potreben citat ] do leta 1985 so se šablone pojavile v drugih mestih, vključno z New Yorkom, Sydneyjem in Melbournom, kjer sta jih dokumentirala ameriški fotograf Charles Gatewood in avstralska fotografinja Rennie Ellis. [32]

Komercializacija in vstop v mainstream pop kulturo

Z priljubljenostjo in legitimizacijo grafitov je prišla stopnja komercializacije. Leta 2001 je računalniški velikan IBM začel oglaševalsko kampanjo v Chicagu in San Franciscu, v kateri so sodelovali ljudje, ki so na pločnikih poslikali simbol miru, srce in pingvina (maskota Linuxa), ki predstavlja "mir, ljubezen in Linux". IBM je Chicagu in San Franciscu skupaj plačal 120.000 USD za kaznovalno odškodnino in stroške čiščenja. [33] [34]

Leta 2005 je Sony začel podobno oglaševalsko akcijo, ki jo je izvajala njegova oglaševalska agencija v New Yorku, Chicagu, Atlanti, Philadelphiji, Los Angelesu in Miamiju, da bi tržila svoj ročni igralni sistem PSP. V tej kampanji je Sony ob upoštevanju pravnih težav kampanje IBM plačal lastnikom stavb za pravico, da na svojih stavbah naslikajo "zbirko mestnih otrok z vrtoglavimi očmi, ki se igrajo s PSP, kot da bi šlo za rolko, veslo, ali gugalnega konja ". [34]

Zagovorniki

Marc Ecko, mestni oblikovalec oblačil, je bil v tem obdobju zagovornik grafitov kot umetniške oblike, ki je trdil, da so "grafiti brez dvoma najmočnejše umetniško gibanje v novejši zgodovini in so bili v moji karieri gonilni navdih." [35]

Grafiti so postali običajna odskočna deska za številne člane umetniške in oblikovalske skupnosti v Severni Ameriki in tujini. V Združenih državah so grafitisti, kot so Mike Giant, Pursue, Rime, Noah in številni drugi, naredili kariero v rolkanju, oblačilih in oblikovanju čevljev za podjetja, kot so DC Shoes, Adidas, Rebel8, Osiris ali Circa [36]. obstaja še veliko drugih, kot so DZINE, Daze, Blade in The Mac, ki so prestopili v galerijske umetnike, pogosto niti ne uporabljajo svojega začetnega medija, barve v spreju. [36]

Globalni razvoj

Južna Amerika

Tristan Manco je zapisal, da se Brazilija "ponaša z edinstveno in posebno bogato sceno grafitov. [Zasluži] si mednarodni ugled kot kraj za umetniški navdih." Grafiti "cvetijo na vseh možnih mestih v brazilskih mestih." Umetniške vzporednice "se pogosto vlečejo med energijo São Paula danes in New Yorka sedemdesetih let". "Razgibana metropola" São Paulo je "postala novo svetišče grafitov". Manco aludira na "revščino in brezposelnost. [In] epske spore in razmere marginaliziranih ljudi v državi" in "kronično revščino Brazilije", kot glavni motorji, ki so "spodbudili živahno kulturo grafitov." V svetovnem merilu ima Brazilija "eno najbolj neenakomernih porazdelitev dohodka. Zakoni in davki se pogosto spreminjajo." Manco trdi, da takšni dejavniki prispevajo k zelo fluidni družbi, polni tistih ekonomskih delitev in družbenih napetosti, ki podpirajo in hranijo "folklorni vandalizem in urbani šport za osebe brez pravice", to je južnoameriška umetnost grafitov. [37]

Med uglednimi brazilskimi grafitarji so Os Gêmeos, Boleta, Nunca, Nina, Speto, Tikka in T.Freak. [38] Njihov umetniški uspeh in sodelovanje v podvigih komercialnega oblikovanja [39] je izpostavil delitve v brazilski skupnosti grafitov med privrženci surove transgresivne oblike pichação in bolj konvencionalno umetniške vrednote izvajalcev grafit. [40]

Srednji vzhod

Grafiti na Bližnjem vzhodu se pojavljajo počasi, z žepi označevalcev, ki delujejo v različnih "Emiratih" Združenih arabskih emiratov, v Izraelu in v Iranu. Glavni iranski časopis Hamšahri je objavil dva članka o ilegalnih piscih v mestu s fotografskim poročanjem o delih iranskega umetnika A1one na stenah Teherana. Tokijska revija za oblikovanje, PingMag, je opravil razgovor z A1one in predstavil fotografije svojega dela. [41] Izraelska pregrada na Zahodnem bregu je postala mesto grafitov, ki v tem smislu spominjajo na berlinski zid. Številni grafitisti v Izraelu prihajajo iz drugih krajev po svetu, na primer JUIF iz Los Angelesa in DEVIONE iz Londona. Versko navedbo "נ נח נחמ נחמן מאומן" ("Na Nach Nachma Nachman Meuman") pogosto vidimo v grafitih po Izraelu.

Grafiti so imeli pomembno vlogo na sceni ulične umetnosti na Bližnjem vzhodu in v Severni Afriki (MENA), zlasti po dogodkih arabske pomladi (2011). Grafiti so orodje izražanja v kontekstu konfliktov v regiji, ki ljudem omogoča, da politično in družbeno dvignejo svoj glas. Znani ulični umetnik Banksy je imel pomemben učinek na sceni ulične umetnosti na območju MENA, zlasti v Palestini, kjer se nekatera njegova dela nahajajo na pregradi Zahodnega brega in v Betlehemu. [42]

Jugovzhodna Azija

V državah jugovzhodne Azije je tudi veliko vplivov grafitov, ki večinoma prihajajo iz sodobne zahodne kulture, na primer Malezije, kjer so grafiti že dolgo pogost prizor v glavnem mestu Malezije, Kuala Lumpurju. Država je od leta 2010 začela z uličnim festivalom, ki spodbuja vse generacije in ljudi iz vseh družbenih slojev, da uživajo in spodbujajo malezijsko ulično kulturo. [43]

Grafiti lika Benderja na steni v Budimpešti na Madžarskem

Grafiti na steni parka v Sydneyju v Avstraliji

Metode in proizvodnja

Sodobne grafite lahko najdemo z arzenalom različnih materialov, ki omogočajo uspešno izdelavo kosa. [44] To vključuje tehnike, kot je pisanje. Razpršilna barva v aerosolnih pločevinkah pa je medij številka ena za grafite. Iz tega blaga izvirajo različni slogi, tehnika in sposobnosti oblikovanja mojstrovin grafitov. Razpršilno barvo lahko najdete v trgovinah s strojno opremo in umetninami in je na voljo v skoraj vseh barvah.

Šablonski grafiti nastanejo z izrezovanjem oblik in modelov iz trdega materiala (na primer iz kartona ali predmetnih map), ki tvorijo celotno zasnovo ali podobo. Šablona se nato nežno položi na "platno" in s hitrimi in enostavnimi potezami aerosolne posode se slika začne pojavljati na predvideni površini.

Prva trgovina z grafiti v Rusiji je bila odprta leta 1992 v Tveru

Prijava grafitov na Eurofestival v Turku na Finskem

Uporaba grafitov v Indiji z uporabo naravnih pigmentov (večinoma oglja, rastlinskih sokov in umazanije)

Dokončana krajinska scena v Thrissurju v Kerali v Indiji

Ustvarjalec grafitov v Londonu

Sodobni eksperimenti

Sodobna umetnost grafitov pogosto vključuje dodatne umetnosti in tehnologije. Na primer, Graffiti Research Lab je spodbujal uporabo projiciranih slik in magnetnih svetlečih diod (meta) kot novih medijev za grafite. Bombaž preje je še ena novejša oblika grafitov. Yarnbombers občasno ciljajo na prejšnje grafite za spremembo, ki se jim je večina grafitov izognila.

Označevanje

Številni nedavni primeri grafitov uporabljajo oznake hashtag. [45] [46]

Teorije o uporabi grafitov pri avantgardnih umetnikih segajo vsaj v čas Asgerja Jorna, ki je leta 1962 v sliki, podobni grafitom, razglasil "avantgarda ne bo obupala". [47]

Mnogi sodobni analitiki in celo umetnostni kritiki so začeli videti umetniško vrednost v nekaterih grafitih in jih prepoznati kot obliko javne umetnosti. Po mnenju mnogih raziskovalcev umetnosti, zlasti na Nizozemskem in v Los Angelesu, je ta vrsta javne umetnosti pravzaprav učinkovito orodje družbene emancipacije ali pri doseganju političnega cilja. [48]

V času spora so takšne freske ponujale sredstvo za komunikacijo in samoizražanje članom teh družbeno, etnično ali rasno razdeljenih skupnosti in so se izkazale kot učinkovito orodje pri vzpostavljanju dialoga in s tem pri dolgoročnem reševanju razcepov. . Berlinski zid so prav tako obsežno pokrivali grafiti, ki odražajo družbene pritiske v zvezi z zatiralsko sovjetsko oblastjo nad NDR.

Številni umetniki, ki se ukvarjajo z grafiti, se prav tako ukvarjajo s podobno dejavnostjo šabloniranja. V bistvu to vključuje šablonsko tiskanje ene ali več barv z brizganjem. Med razstavljanjem in objavljanjem več svojih barvnih šablon in slik, ki prikazujejo državljansko vojno v Šrilanki in urbano Britanijo v začetku leta 2000, je grafitaristka Mathangi Arulpragasam, imenovana MIA, postala znana tudi po tem, da je svoje podobe političnega nasilja vključila v svoje glasbene videoposnetke za samske "Galang" in "Bucky Done Gun" ter njena naslovnica. Nalepke njenih umetniških del se pogosto pojavljajo tudi po krajih, kot je London v ulici Brick Lane, prilepljene na svetilke in ulične table, postala je muza za druge grafitarje in slikarje po vsem svetu v mestih, vključno s Sevillo.

Osebno izražanje

Mnogi grafitarji se odločijo za zaščito svoje identitete in ostanejo anonimni ali pa ovirajo pregon.

S komercializacijo grafitov (in hip hopa nasploh) se v večini primerov tudi pri legalno naslikani umetnosti "grafitov" grafitarji odločijo za anonimnost. To je lahko posledica različnih razlogov ali kombinacije razlogov. Grafiti še vedno ostajajo eden od štirih elementov hip hopa, ki kljub podobi "pevske in plesne zvezde", ki hiphop kulturo prodaja mainstreamu, ne velja za "performativno umetnost". Ker je grafična oblika umetnosti, bi lahko rekli tudi, da mnogi grafitisti še vedno spadajo v kategorijo introvertiranih arhetipskih umetnikov.

Banksy je eden najbolj znanih in priljubljenih uličnih umetnikov na svetu, ki v današnji družbi ostaja brez obraza. [49] Znan je po svoji politični, protivojni šablonski umetnosti predvsem v angleškem Bristolu, vendar je njegovo delo mogoče videti kjer koli od Los Angelesa do Palestine. V Veliki Britaniji je Banksy najbolj prepoznavna ikona tega kulturno -umetniškega gibanja in svojo identiteto skriva, da se izogne ​​aretaciji. Večino umetniških del Banksyja je mogoče videti po ulicah Londona in okoliških predmestjih, čeprav je slikal slike po vsem svetu, tudi na Bližnjem vzhodu, kjer je naslikal kontroverzno izraelsko pregrado na Zahodnem bregu s satiričnimi podobami življenja na drugi strani. Eden je upodobil luknjo v steni z idilično plažo, drugi pa gorsko pokrajino na drugi strani. Od leta 2000 so potekale tudi številne razstave, nedavne umetnine pa so prinesle ogromne vsote denarja. Banksyjeva umetnost je odličen primer klasične polemike: vandalizem proti umetnosti. Podporniki umetnosti podpirajo njegovo delo, razširjeno po mestnih območjih, kot umetnine, nekateri sveti, kot sta Bristol in Islington, pa so jih uradno zaščitili, medtem ko so uradniki drugih območij ocenili, da je njegovo delo vandalizem, in so ga odstranili.

Pixnit je še ena umetnica, ki svojo identiteto ne želi obdržati pred širšo javnostjo. [50] Njeno delo se osredotoča na lepotne in oblikovalske vidike grafitov v nasprotju z Banksyjevo protivladno šokantno vrednostjo. Njene slike so pogosto cvetličnih vzorcev nad trgovinami in trgovinami v njenem lokalnem mestnem območju Cambridge, Massachusetts. Nekateri lastniki trgovin podpirajo njeno delo in druge spodbujajo k podobnemu delu. "Eden od kosov je ostal zgoraj nad Steve's Kitchen, ker izgleda precej super."- Erin Scott, vodja New England Comics v Allstonu v Massachusettsu. [51]

Umetniki grafitov se lahko užalijo, če so fotografije njihove umetnosti objavljene v komercialnem kontekstu brez njihovega dovoljenja. Marca 2020 je finski grafitar Psyke izrazil svoje nezadovoljstvo nad časopisom Ilta-Sanomat objavil fotografijo Peugeota 208 v članku o novih avtomobilih, z njegovimi grafiti na vidnem mestu v ozadju. Umetnik trdi, da ne želi, da se njegova umetnost uporablja v komercialnem kontekstu, tudi če bi prejel odškodnino. [52]

Risba v templju Philae v Egiptu prikazuje tri moške s palicami ali palicami.


11 pisanih stavkov iz starodavnih rimskih grafitov

Ko sta mesta Pompeji in Herkulanej nenadoma zajela izbruh Vezuva leta 79 n.št., so bile številne njihove zgradbe tako intimno ohranjene, da lahko sodobni arheologi celo preberejo grafite, narisane na njihovih starodavnih zidovih. Preverite, ali vas kaj od tega spominja na kopalnico enaindvajsetega stoletja.

1. "Philiros spado."

2. "Lucius Pinxit."

3. “Apollinaris, medicus Titi Imperatoris hic cacavit bene.”

“Apollinaris, doctor to the emperor Titus, had a good crap here.” In Latin profanity, “cacatne” pertained to defecation.

4. “Oppi, emboliari, fur, furuncle.”

“Oppius, you’re a clown, a thief, and a cheap crook.”

5. “Miximus in lecto. Faetor, peccavimus, hospes. Si dices: quare? Nulla matella fuit.”

“We have wet the bed. I admit, we were wrong, my host. If you ask ‘why?’ There was no chamber pot.” Found inside an inn.

6. “Virgula Tertio su: Indecens es.”

“Virgula to Teritus: You are a nasty boy.”

7. “Epaphra, glaber es.”

8. “Talia te fallant utinam medacia, copo: tu vedes acuam et bibes ipse merum.”

“If only similar swindling would dupe you, innkeeper: you sell water, and drink the undiluted wine yourself.”

9. “Vatuan aediles furunculi rog.”

“The petty thieves request the election of Vatia as adele.” In ancient Pompeii, an “adele” was an elected official who supervised markets and local police, among other things.

10. “Suspirium puellam Celadus thraex.”

“Celadus makes the girls moan.”

11. “Admiror, O paries, te non cecidisse, qui tot scriptorium taedia sustineas.”

“I wonder, O wall, that you have not yet collapsed, so many writers’ clichés do you bear.” This phrase seems to have been a popular one, as slightly different versions of it appear in multiple locations throughout Pompeii’s ruins.

In the interest of avoiding hardcore lewdness and profanity, I’ve omitted some of the truly vulgar defacements. For some firmly NSFW examples, do go here.

These quotes were were recorded in a comprehensive, multi-volume collection of Latin inscriptions called Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, which was first published in in 1857. Image credit: Flickr user Roller Coaster Philosophy.


Roman soldiers' very rude graffiti revealed near Hadrian's Wall

Archaeologists in the U.K. are attempting to record the unique inscriptions carved into the walls of a quarry, known as the written rock of Gelt. The quarry provided stones for the construction of Hadrian's Wall, and the carvings offer a smutty glimpse into the lives of the Roman soldiers. The inscriptions include a caricature of an officer and a phallus, as well as a reference to the consulate of Aper and Maximus.

An ancient quarry near Hadrian’s Wall in northern England offers a smutty glimpse into the lives of the Roman soldiers who built the famous fortification.

Archaeologists from the U.K.’s Newcastle University and Historic England are working to record the unique inscriptions carved into the walls of the quarry, which provided stone for Hadrian’s Wall.

The sandstone inscriptions include a caricature of an officer and a phallus, which denoted good luck in Roman culture.

Other carvings at the quarry in Gelt Forest have helped experts date the rare inscriptions. One inscription, for example, describes ‘APRO ET MAXIMO CONSVLIBVS OFICINA MERCATI,’ a reference to the consulate of Aper and Maximus. This dates the inscription to 207 A.D., a time when Hadrian’s Wall was undergoing a major renovation, according to Historic England.

The caricature of a Roman officer cut into the ancient quarry near Hadrian's Wall. (Historic England/Newcastle University)

“These inscriptions at Gelt Forest are probably the most important on the Hadrian’s Wall frontier,” said Mike Collins, Historic England’s inspector of ancient monuments for Hadrian’s Wall, in a statement. “They provide insight into the organization of the vast construction project that Hadrian’s Wall was, as well as some very human and personal touches, such as the caricature of their commanding officer inscribed by one group of soldiers.”

Known as the written rock of Gelt, local people and experts were able to view the inscriptions up close until the 1980s, when a path to the quarry collapsed into the gorge of a nearby river. The soft sandstone into which the inscriptions were cut is also slowly eroding.

A new project, however, aims to record the carvings. Archaeologists will use ropes from above the quarry to access the inscriptions, which will be laser scanned. The scans will then be used to create a 3D digital model of the rock surfaces, giving the public an up-close view of the inscriptions for the first time in 40 years.

Roman graffiti carved into the soft sandstone of the quarry in Gelt Forest. (Historic England)

“These inscriptions are very vulnerable to further gradual decay,” said Ian Haynes, professor of archaeology at Newcastle University, in a statement. “This is a great opportunity to record them as they are in 2019, using the best modern technology to safeguard the ability to study them into the future.”

Construction of the wall began in 122 A.D. on the orders of Emperor Hadrian, who was visiting Britain at that time.

A World Heritage site, the 73-mile wall stretched across the U.K. from what is now Wallsend in the east to its western end at Bowness-on-Solway.

The Roman quarry was used in the construction of Hadrian's Wall. (Historic England)

Last year archaeologists unearthed boxing gloves at the site of Vindolanda, an ancient Roman fort just south of Hadrian’s Wall. A mysterious bronze hand was also discovered during an excavation at Vindolanda.

In 2017, a trove of artifacts, including Roman swords, was discovered at the former fort. Researchers also found 25 wooden ink documents at Vindolanda, offering a fascinating glimpse into everyday life in the Roman Empire.

Elsewhere in the U.K. other Roman sites have been revealing their secrets, such as mysterious villa at Abermagwr in west Wales and a 2,000-year-old cemetery in Lincolnshire.

File photo - A reenactor dressed as a Roman soldier stands guard looking out over the countryside of Cumbria from the Birdoswald Roman Fort as the lives of Roman Legionnaires are re-enacted during the Hadrian's Wall Live event on Sept. 3, 2016 in Carlisle, England. (Photo by Ian Forsyth/Getty Images)

Archaeologists in Leicester also unearthed a 1,600-year-old Roman mosaic and lifted it out of the ground. The mosaic floor, which dates from the late 3rd or early 4th century A.D., was discovered next to a parking lot by the same team that found the remains of Richard III in the city.

In 2014, a stunning hoard of ancient silver, believed to have been used as bribes by Romans, was found with a metal detector by a teenager in Scotland.


Ancient Romans drew penises on everything, and here’s why

Penis depictions are alive and well in America, whether in all-boys-Catholic-school graffiti or a bachelorette party’s baked goods. Usually, though, the social accepted-ness stops there, right at those specific kinds of situations. You wouldn’t walk into a neighbor’s house and be greeted by a phallus statue, or paint a mural of one in your bedroom. (Well…usually. We can’t speak for everyone.)

Ancient Rome, though, held back no penis punches. There were graffiti scratchings, carvings, mosaics, frescoes, statues, wind chimes, necklaces, and more featuring everyone’s favorite third leg. And they were found povsod, from the brothels to around a child’s neck.

For example, in Pompeii, penises have been found carved into the streets, pointing to the nearest brothel:

Young boys were given amulets known as bulla, which included a fascinum—a phallus amulet meant to grant protection[i]. Soldiers wore fascina as well[ii].

There are plenty of frescoes, too. Like this one of the god Priapus weighing his member against a sack of gold, from the entryway of the House of the Vetii, Pompeii:

And of course there were loads of graffiti penises and graphic writings all throughout Pompeii. This one below was written to a woman named Thyas, and reads “Thyas, don’t love Fortunatus. Goodbye.”

And this carved going into a Pompeiian theater:

They were even found on some controversial coins/tokens poznan kot spintriae:

Obviously, penis depictions were far more acceptable in the public sphere than they are now—and they were povsod. Ampak zakaj? What’s the difference?

It’s hard to categorize a culture that spanned over 1,000 years, but there are many attitudes that were generally true across the years. Probably the most important distinction is the general attitude towards sex and nudity in ancient Rome. Instead of sex being a fairly stigmatized, shameful act, it was a well-accepted and occasionally encouraged facet of life.

For example, male and female prostitution was legal for nearly the entire length of the empire. And it was normal to have regular sex (unless you were a virgin woman) or for men to have sex outside their marriage (with men or other women[iii]).

Indeed, sex generally only became an issue if you couldn’t exercise the proper level of self-control over your desires and became hypersexual, which could indicate that you were unfit to govern others[iv] or were uncultured[v].

Further, when the Roman population had dipped too low, Emperor Augustus made it a high honor for men to have three male offspring[vi], and instituted laws such as the Lex Julia and Lex Papia Poppaea, which provided tax breaks for those who had a certain number of children, and granted men with larger families preferential treatment when applying for public office. Penalties were struck against those who failed to comply[vii].

This new emphasis on children can be seen in Augustus’ Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace), a monument dedicated on his wife’s birthday that actually features images of their children—an incredibly rare feature on Roman art up until that time.

Lastly, male nudity was far more common across the empire, as it was necessary for certain religious practices[viii] and athletic competitions[ix].

Because of this lack of stigma, certain images—like penises, or images of various sexual acts—were prevalent throughout Pompeii and the Roman world, where even children were exposed to them.

But more than that, penises had different connotations outside of the sexual. They were often a source of humor in images and writings[x]—much like today—but they also could represent luck, protection, fertility, and guidance[xi].

In fact, the phallus was seen to be protective against the evil eye and to bring prosperity and luck—hence children and soldiers wore them as amulets in the form of fascina. Fascina were also fashioned into windchimes, known as tintinnabula, which were believed to protect and grant fortune to homes. (The bells attached to the penises were seen as protective as well, and were tied to religious use[xii].)

Penises were tied to certain gods. For example, Greek Hermes (who served as the god of boundaries) was often carved into boundary stones and signposts known as herma, which featured his head and genitals[xiii]. Romans adapted the same practice for their equivalent god, Mercury:

But even more heavily tied to phalluses was the deity Priapus , who was a god of fertility and male genitalia. Famously, he has an enormous, permanent erection—which is now called priapism in his honor.

Like before, his phallus was seen to avert the evil eye and grant good luck[xiv], but he was also seen as a god of navigation—and his penis was a guiding force. Naturally, this made him popular among mariners, but his penis was also used in domestic setting to point people in certain directions[xv]. As indicated in the famous collection of poems to Priapus, the Priapaea, it seems statues of Priapus used his penis to guide people to certain features of a town, like a fountain:

Falce minax et parte tui maiore, Priape,

ad fontem, quaeso, dic mihi qua sit iter.

(“Priapus, terrific with thy sickle and thy

greater part, tell me, prithee, which is the

This may add a second explanation to why phalluses were used to point out brothels (besides the obvious).

Penises were also tied to healing magic votive offerings (vota) in the form of penises have been discovered at various Roman healing sanctuaries, like these ones discovered at Pompeii:

Feature Image: Wikimedia Commons

[i] Pliny, Naravna zgodovina 28.29 Varro, De lingua latina7.97 Barbara Kellum, “Concealing/Revealing: Gender and the Play of Meaning in the Monuments of Augustan Rome,” in The Roman Cultural Revolution (Cambridge University Press, 1997), p. 166.

[ii] Henig, Religion in Roman Britain, str. 176 Portable Antiquities Scheme, cat num: LIN-2BE126, http://finds.org.uk/database/search/results/q/LIN-2BE126.

[iii] Amy Richlin, The Garden of Priapus: Sexuality and Aggression in Roman Humor (Oxford University Press, 1983, 1992), p. 225.

[iv] Catharine Edwards, “Unspeakable Professions: Public Performance and Prostitution in Ancient Rome,” in Roman Sexualities, pp. 67–68.

[v] Edwards, “Unspeakable Professions,” p. 68.

[vi] “The Romans: From Village to Empire: A History of Rome from Earliest Times to the End of the Western Empire” by M. Boatwright, et al. 2nd edition. 2011.

[vii] Neurath, Paul (1994). From Malthus to the Club of Rome and Back. M.E. Sharpe. str. 7. ISBN 9781563244070.

[viii] Plutarch, Life of Caesar 61:1.

[ix] Crowther, “Nudity and Morality: Athletics in Italy,” pp. 119–121.

[x] David Fredrick, The Roman Gaze: Vision, Power, and the Body (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002), p. 156.

[xi] Amy Richlin, “Pliny’s Brassiere,” in Roman Sexualities, str. 215.

[xii] Duncan Fishwick, Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Brill, 1990), vol. II.1, pp. 504-5.

[xiii] Paus. vii. 22. § 2 Aristoph. Plut. 1121, 1144 Hom. Od. xiv. 435, xix. 397 Athen. i. str. 16.

[xiv] Clarke, John R. Looking at Lovemaking: Constructions of Sexuality in Roman Art, 100 B. C. – A. D. 250. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1998.

[xv] Neilson III, Harry R. 2002. “A terracotta phallus from Pisa Ship E: more evidence for the Priapus deity as protector of Greek and Roman navigators.” The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 31.2: 248-253.

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Behind the Writing on the Stalls

Kill the 5-Day Workweek

You Can’t Escape the Attention Economy

“It recreates the life of the town,” said Rebecca Benefiel, a professor of classics at Washington and Lee University. “It’s the voices of the people who were standing there, and thinking this, and writing it. That’s why the graffiti are just so special and so enthralling.”

Ancient graffiti in Pompeii, in the style typical for a political campaign. (Mirko Tobias Schäfer / Flickr)

The fact that we can read the original inscriptions at all today is part-tragedy, part-miracle. Like most of what scholars know of Pompeii, the city’s extensive graffiti is so well preserved because it spent nearly 1,500 years entombed in ash after the catastrophic eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 A.D. People have been fixated on the ancient etchings since Pompeii was rediscovered centuries ago. “Though nearly 20 centuries old, the thoughtless school-boy’s scrawls, the love-sick gallant’s doggerel, or the caricature of some friend, foe, or popular favorite, are still as clear as though executed by an idler yesterday,” New York Times wrote in 1881.

But despite all this appreciation, Pompeii’s graffiti hasn’t been easy for most people to access. Even in the Internet age, a time when there’s a vague expectation that all of human knowledge has somehow coalesced online (it hasn’t), the inscriptions haven’t been comprehensively digitized. Scholars have to either piece together disparate texts found only in research libraries, or visit Pompeii in-person. But much of the graffiti—indeed, much of Pompeii’s history—has been looted, defaced, or destroyed over time. Ironically, some of that vandalism has come at the hands of people who’ve etched their own graffiti over the originals.

All this is why Benefiel is leading an effort to map the graffiti of Pompeii and Herculaneum, a nearby town that was also buried by the 79 A.D. eruption. With a grant from a National Endowment for the Humanities, she and other scholars are building a suite of tools to digitally catalogue, contextualize, and analyze these ancient inscriptions.

“I’m really interested in trying to look at the whole of what we have from these cities, and thinking a bit more broadly about how we can identify who’s writing messages and where they’re writing them,” Benefiel said. “Right now, that’s really hard to do just because of how they’ve been published, and how the map has completely changed because excavations got much more expansive.”

Digitizing what’s known about the graffiti at Pompeii—and making a searchable database that’s rich with metadata like height, writing style, language, and other details—is also a way of teasing out connections between inscriptions that aren’t otherwise apparent. Perhaps, for example, scholars will be able to identify common authorship among a variety of geographically disperse messages. Or maybe they’ll be able to understand what kinds of establishments are adorned with certain graffiti, based on the nature of the messages written there.

Scholars can tell, for instance, that a tavern was once beyond the wall where a welcoming greeting—“Sodales, avete,”—can still be read. Some graffiti describes how many tunics were sent to be laundered, while other inscriptions mark the birth of a donkey and a litter of piglets. People scribbled details of various transactions onto the walls of Pompeii, including the selling of slaves. They also shared snippets of literature (lines from The Aeneid were popular) and succinct maxims like, “The smallest evil, if neglected, will reach the greatest proportions.”

And then there was the trash talk.

“One speaks of ‘sheep-faced Lygnus, strutting about like a peacock and giving himself airs on the strength of his good looks,’” the London-based magazine Chambersov dnevnik wrote, in 1901, of Pompeii’s well-preserved insults. “Another exclaims: ‘Epaphra glaber es,’ (Oh, Epaphras, thou art bald) Rusticus est Cordyon, (Corydon is a clown or country bumpkin) Epaphra, Pilicrepus non es, (Oh, Epaphras, thou art no tennis-player.)”

All of which is somewhat sophomoric, but certainly isn’t outdated per se. The social nature of ancient graffiti, including walls where there were clusters of inscriptions featuring people writing back and forth to one another, evokes social communication of the modern era: Facebook and Twitter, for instance. “I will say that the graffiti at Pompeii are nicer than the types of things we write today, though,” Benefiel told me.

That may be because many of the tropes associated with writing in public are by now so familiar that simply declaring “Claudius was here,” isn’t enough—in the digital space, anyway—to achieve what many people are aiming for. “Overall, people want to write on things to be known,” Roger Gastman, the author of The History of American Graffiti, told me in an email. “To be everywhere at once yet nowhere at all.”

But the wall-politicking that takes place on Facebook may be inherently different from graffiti in the physical world—even if it stems from the same basic human inclinations. “Writing your name on a [physical] wall is both a way of getting noticed but it’s also somewhat transgressive,” said Judith Donath, the author of The Social Machine: Designs for Living Online. But in order to get noticed online, where everyone can and is supposed to write on walls, you have to do more than mark down your own name and the date. The pressure, then, is to be more provocative, Donath told me. And an arms race for provocation in a world where there are more than 7,000 tweets published every second tends to debase civility pretty quickly.

“Especially Twitter,” Donath said. “If you’re not saying something, it’s like you’re not there at all you don’t exist. You have to maintain your presence there. It’s more of a temporal issue, whereas in a city it’s more spatial.”

The ancient graffiti of Pompeii brings together these two domains, the spatial and the temporal, anchoring the ideas of a group of people in time to the physical space they occupy. Few artifacts are able to do this. Books and stone tablets, for example, aren’t typically preserved in situ. Which means the preservation of the convergence in Pompeii is remarkably rare, and made all the more astonishing for the fact that much of the graffiti there dates to sometime in the twilight decades of the city’s existence.


Women in Antiquity

Ancient Roman Prostitues

What: Prostitution in Ancient Rome

Where: Mostly Pompeii, but prostitution was everywhere

When: primarily between 200 BCE and 250 CE

Why: Though many high school history books may hide the knowledge of ancient prostitutes, that does not mean they do not exist. Prostitution has been around for a very long time, often referred to as the worlds oldest profession. When studying the past, I think its important to study all aspects of it. If we pick and choose which parts of history is most important, we can lose valuable information and understanding of how people lived.

Erotic scene found in Pompeii. Source: Wikipedia Commons

People may try to remove themselves from history. Assume humans only ever evolve and that we in modern times don’t share any similarities to those of the past. This can be unfortunate and perhaps create a bias in someones writing. This is why prostitution can be seen as very important. It can help show that no matter how much humans evolve and technology changes, modern humans can relate back to their ancient ancestors. Therefore prostitution is a very important subject to study and to understand.

The Lives of Prostitutes and Society

Many prostitutes didn’t become prostitutes because of wanting to do that job. Many were forced into the position because it was the easiest way to make money. Most prostitutes were slaves and ex-slaves that would not be hired anywhere else. Therefore, the women would join brothels to make some sort of money. Even though it was one of the only ways to make an income as a female ex-slave, the pay wasn’t that great.

While prostitution was legal in ancient Rome, it was similar to modern times in that prostitutes were not looked upon well. Prostitution was looked upon as a shameful profession. though, unlike today, the prostitution were looked down upon for a different reason. In ancient Rome, prostitutes were looked down on because they used their body to make money. For the same reason, gladiators, actors and musicians were all viewed as shameful professions.

Erotic scene found in Lupanar. Source=Wikipedia Commons

One of the way men were able to tell a women was a prostitute was by her clothing. Prostitutes would be identified by only two forms of clothing they would wear. One was a special toga, and the other was to be completely naked. The toga the prostitutes were actually of a male design. In ancient Rome, women and men wore two different styles of togas. It was seen as disrespectful if a women wore a male toga. But, prostitutes were allowed to wear a male toga. This was because prostitutes were viewed as having a male sexual desire. Men were supposed to have strong sexual desires, which is part of the reason why prostitution was legal. Having or wanting to have lots of sex was viewed as a sign of a strong male. Therefore, a prostitute, whose job was to engage in sex, was allowed to wear a male toga.

Brothels

The main place that prostitutes work is the brothel. A brothel would not only hosts prostitutes but was a main hall that served beer and food. While the most common place to hire a prostitute would be a brothel, prostitutes would also work outside a theater after performance times to find men. There is graffiti on the walls of some brothels that show reviews of a prostitute. The men who hired a prostitute would write review of her on the walls of brothel to let other men know how she was. Interestingly, the prostitutes would also write reviews of the men. If the men were bad at sex, didn’t pay well and things like that, the women would write it down. This would let other prostitutes know whether to entertain the male or not.

image of the current Lupanar. Source: Wikipedia Commons

Pompeii is currently famous for having a lot of brothels. Though modern archaeologists do disagree on the amount of brothels that are there. That being said, the most well-known and surviving brothel of today is the one in Pompeii. It is called Lupanar. It is where we find most of our graffiti about prostitution because it’s in such good condition. Whats fascinating is that in ancient Rome, lupanare was the word to describe all brothels, meaning wolf-den.


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Komentarji:

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