Uncas ScStr - Zgodovina

Uncas ScStr - Zgodovina


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Uncas

(ScStr .: t. 192; 1. 118'6 "; b. 23'4"; dph. 7'6 "; s. 11,6 k .; a. 1 20-par. P.r., 2 32-par.)

Uncas-vijačni parnik, zgrajen v New Yorku leta 1843-ga je tamkajšnja mornarica 20. septembra 1861 kupila od Dudleyja Bucka za uporabo pri raziskavi obale. Od septembra 1861 do februarja 1862 so jo na newyorškem mornariškem dvorišču preuredili in jo v začetku marca dali v službo, ki ji je poveljeval vršilec dolžnosti Lemuel G. Crane.

Vendar, preden je Uncas lahko začel opravljati svoje naloge za raziskavo obale, je konfederacijski železovski ovan Virginia napadel vojaške ladje Unije, ki so blokirale Hampton Roads, potopile fregate Cumberland in kongres ter ogrozile njihove spremljevalce. Zaradi opustošenja vstalega Merrimacka je bil Uncas poslan na Hampton Roads, da bi okrepil tamkajšnje pomorske sile Unije. Na to strateško desko je prispela do 14. marca, tri dni pozneje pa je bila uradno premeščena v mornarico in dodeljena severnoatlantski blokadni eskadrili. Na žalost je takrat kratka služba Uncasa odkrila resne pomanjkljivosti na ladji, zato so jo naročili v Baltimore na popravila. Medtem ko je bila pripravljena za ukrepanje, je mornarica znova spremenila načrte za plovilo in jo poslala v zahodni del Mehiškega zaliva, kjer se je pripravljal častnik zastave Farragut

za drzen napad na New Orleans. 10. aprila je parnik vstopil v Mississippi, kjer je potrebovala pomoč pri iskanju položajev za minometne čolne poveljnika Davida D. Porterja med njegovim bližajočim se bombardiranjem utrdb St. Philip in Jackson. Farragut jo je nameraval uporabiti kot topnico v Mississippi Soundu. Vendar se je njen stroj skoraj takoj pokvaril in ladja se je vrnila na sever za nadaljnja popravila, preden je začela katero koli nalogo.

Pomanjkljivosti so bile hitro odpravljene; in 26. se je ladja odplula v Port Royal, SC, da bi se pridružila oficirju zastave Samuelu F. Du Pontu v južnoatlantski blokadni eskadrili-ko je ujela škuno Belle 30 milj severozahodno od Charlestona, SC Belle je delovala iz Nassaua , New Providence in naj bi se s tovorom soli, poprom in milom odpravil v Filadelfijo. Uncas je le za kratek čas ostal v Port Royalu, 29. aprila 1862 je bil dodeljen blokadi St. Simon's Sound, Gal in vseh celinskih voda, ki segajo od St. Catherine's do St. Andrew '. Sliši se.

Uncas je nato prejel naročila na Florido, ki je 11. junija 1862. prispela v reko St. John's. Uncas je prvič videla akcijo 1. septembra 1862, ko sta z Patroonom najela družbo konfederatov pri St.John's in Yellow Bluffs. Razpršeni incidenti po tem začetnem spopadu so 11. septembra 1862. privedli do velikega srečanja z južnimi baterijami v St. John's Bluffu. Zaroka je trajala štiri ure in 20 minut. Med akcijo je Uncas izstrelil 143 granat in 13 trdnih strelov, Patroon pa 60. Uncas je trpel zaradi "škode na zgornjem delu", vendar je prestal požar in prisilil obrambne konfederate, da začasno zapustijo utrdbo. Ladja in častniki so za svoje ravnanje pohvalili častnika zastave Du Ponta. Uncas in Patroon sta se pomerila v drugi, manjši bitki na blefih 2. oktobra 1862. Uncas je nadaljeval patruljno in izvidniško delo na reki pozimi in spomladi 1863. 10. marca 1863 je Uncas v spremstvu vojske z vojaki prepeljal vojsko do reke sv. pristal in zasedel Jacksonville, Fla.

10. junija 1863 je častnik zastave Du Pont odredil Uncasu v Port Royal na popravila. Poslabšanje stanja plovila ob prihodu je 4. julija 1863 povzročilo nadaljnje ukaze, ki so Uncasu napotili, naj nadaljuje na newyorško mornarišče. Uncas je bil poražen in prodan na javni dražbi na newyorškem mornariškem dvorišču 21. avgusta 1863. 20. novembra 1863 je bila preimenovana v Claymont in je ostala v trgovski službi, dokler ni bila opuščena leta 1886.


Zgodovina

Leta 1988 je bilo okrožje ustanovljeno in organizirano v skladu s splošnim statutom Connecticut 19a-240 in 241 kot vladni subjekt, upravlja pa ga upravni odbor. Okrožje služi mestu Norwich in mestom Bozrah, Franklin, Griswold, Libanon, Lizbona, Montville, Salem, Sprague in Voluntown. Glavna pisarna se nahaja v Norwichu, satelitske pisarne pa v jewett Cityju, Libanonu, Montvilleu in Salemu (ure so različne).

Zdravstveno okrožje Uncas obstaja za varovanje zdravja javnosti. S svojimi članicami sodeluje pri preprečevanju bolezni in poškodb, spodbuja bolj zdrave skupnosti in zagotavlja varno okolje. To počne z informacijami, izobraževanjem, predpisi in sodelovanjem skupnosti. Okrožje je odgovorno za uveljavljanje Kodeksa o javnem zdravju in veljavnih statutov zvezne države Connecticut v naših občinah članicah.

Okrožje si nenehno prizadeva izboljšati in posodabljati tehnike, s katerimi skupnosti daje znanje za zagotavljanje zdravja in varnosti.


Zgodba o Masonu, Uncas prikazuje zgodovino bolj zapleteno kot junaki in zlikovci

Objavljeno 16. julija 2020 17:37

Marcus Mason Maronn

Žal se že tisočletja po vsem svetu ubijajo človeška bitja. Preden so belci vdrli v Severno Ameriko in v današnji Connecticut, je pleme Pequot vdrlo v to regijo in takoj podjarmilo lokalna plemena. Uporabili so strah, prisilo in mučenje, pri tem pa pobili številne svoje rase.

Čeprav so prvotno povabili koloniste iz trgovinskih razlogov, so začeli načrtovati odpravo konkurence, ko niso mogli več nadzorovati svojih hegemonističnih razmer. Stvari so postale precej zapletene.

Leta 1637 je bil John Mason poveljnik v vojni Pequot, vendar ni bil več genocidni mesar kot Uncas ali Sassacus. Pravzaprav so bili vsi vidni bojevniki, ki so se borili za preživetje. V vojni je bistvo ubiti sovražnika, preden oni ubijejo vas. Sassacus je preživel in zbežal v New York, a so ga Mohawki takoj ubili, mu odrezali glavo in roke ter jih poslali v Boston kot ponudbo prijateljstva Angležem.

Uncas je nato postal prevladujoči sachem, ker se je povezal s kolonisti in postal krvni brat z Johnom Masonom. Nekateri zgodovinarji menijo, da je imel ključno vlogo pri premagovanju prevladujočih Pequotov, pri čemer je izdal svojo raso in sorodnike, da bi ustrezali njegovim ambicijam.

Nekateri bi trdili, da bi Pequots lahko zmagali, če ne bi Uncasovih dejanj. Zakaj torej John Mason nepravično vedno prevzame vso krivdo za pokol Mystic?

Konec devetnajstega stoletja, na vrhuncu gibanja nacionalnih kipov, so se ugledni prebivalci Mystica odločili, da svojega lokalnega heroja, ki je nastajajoča naselja ohranil pred uničenjem, počastijo z visokim simbolom svojega ponosa. Nastala umetniška skulptura je zgodovinski izraz vrednot tiste dobe.

Seveda nekateri preživeli potomci Pequota niso odobravali tega simbola majorja##xa0John Mason na svetem mestu, kjer so umrli njihovi predniki. Vendar pa je v devetdesetih letih, ko je bilo ponovno rojeno pleme Pequot, predsednik Richard “Skip ” Hayward menil, da bi kip moral ostati tam, da ljudje ne bi pozabili svoje najtemnejše ure. Pleme je načrtovalo kulturni muzej in bi lahko predstavilo svojo različico tiste dobe in dogodkov.

Ne glede na to je v Grotonu izbruhnila polemika glede kipa. Medtem ko so razpravljali o številnih vidikih, je bila svoboda izražanja večinoma umaknjena. Glede na scenarij politične korektnosti in iz spoštovanja do svetega mesta je bilo odločeno, da se kip preseli v Windsor, ki ga je ustanovil John Mason in kjer je prebival leta 1637.

Ko so kip premaknili, so ga ponovno rodili in predstavljali majorja uravnoteženo in celovito vse življenje kot javni uslužbenec namesto le za eno vprašljivo dejanje. Bil je pomemben ustanovitelj kolonije v Connecticutu in storil je veliko stvari, za katere si zasluži počastitev, zato so prvotno ploščo odstranili in sedanja obstaja.

To je bil pravičen kompromis za večino ljudi, ne pa tudi za skrajneže.

Takrat je bilo predlagano, da se na podlago dodajo še tri plošče, da se zagotovi več vidikov in podrobneje obravnavajo številne zgodovinske zapletenosti. Na žalost država tega ni naredila, zdaj pa se zaveda, da je to tisto, kar je potrebno. Zgodovinarji lahko določijo ustrezno besedilo in dovolijo temu pomembnemu simbolu, da v prihodnje bolje izobražuje javnost.

Kip Janeza Masona ne bi smel biti ponovno premeščen, vendar je treba glede na podnebje politične korektnosti in vandalizma na Divjem zahodu ta pomemben zgodovinski simbol v celoti zaščititi. Javnost mora bolje razumeti zapletenost naše zgodovine in imeti sprejemljivost za nekatere vprašljive vidike, vključno z negativnimi napakami človeške narave.

Nihče ni popoln. V vseh nas je dobro in slabo.

Nekaj ​​ realizira, v kolikšni meri je John Mason zaščitil Uncas in da je več generacij masonov celo bankrotiralo in umrlo v svojih prizadevanjih za zaščito dežel Mohegan pred brezvestnimi kolonialnimi oblastmi. Govorite o zapletenosti! Ta zapuščina je antiteza bombastičnim oznakam, ki jih ozko usmerjeni skrajneži nepravično uporabljajo za omalovaževanje Johna Masona.

Sovražniki bodo vedno zagrenjeni in maščevalni, ne bodo dovolili, da se stara rana ustrezno zaceli. Vendar nam ni treba kapitulirati pred njihovimi nerealnimi zahtevami. Namesto tega bi jih morali prepričati, naj mokasin postavijo na drugo nogo.

Marcus Mason Maronn je potomec Johna Masona. Živi v kraju Old Lyme


Uncas: prvi Mohegan

Uvod: Uncas v mitu in spominu - Svet v ravnovesju - Novi svet Moheganov - Vzpon Moheganov - Ubijanje Miantonomijev - Maščevanje Uncasom - Med Angleži - Uncas, Mohegani in Vojna kralja Filipa - zaključek: Uncasova zapuščina

Dostop z omejenim dostopom true DodanoData 2013-11-27 15: 54: 20.069115 Bookplateleaf 0006 Boxid IA1160203 City Ithaca (N.Y.) donator bostonpubliclibrary Zunanja identifikacijska številka urin: asin: 0801438772
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žaro: OCLC: 769653338 Republisher_date 20171125093857 Republisher_operator [email protected] Republisher_time 869 Scandate 20171124102031 skener ttscribe4.hongkong.archive.org Scanningcenter Hongkong Tts_version v1.54-12-g6b48a9c WorldCat (izdaja vir) 442.557.763

Ocene skupnosti

Ameriška književnost je tako raznolika, kot je morda njena opredeljujoča značilnost, njen teren. Vsaka regija je tako ustvarila svoje literarne sloge in junake. Kalifornija ima Steinbecka. Nabokov in številni zahodni specialisti za žanr se odpirajo po robustnem zahodu. Srednji zahod ima William Gass. Srednji Atlantik ima Philip Roth, Gore Vidal, William Carlos Williams, pesnike. Odprta cesta ima Kerouac. Na jugu so Tennessee Williams, Flannery O'Connor, Harper Lee in sanjam o Novi Angliji ...

Ameriška književnost je tako raznolika, kot je morda njena opredeljujoča značilnost, njen teren. Vsaka regija je tako ustvarila svoje literarne sloge in junake. Kalifornija ima Steinbecka. Nabokov in številni zahodni specialisti za žanr se odpirajo po robustnem zahodu. Srednji zahod ima William Gass. Srednji Atlantik ima Philip Roth, Gore Vidal, William Carlos Williams, pesnike. Odprta cesta ima Kerouac. Na jugu so Tennessee Williams, Flannery O'Connor, Harper Lee in Faulkner. Ima tudi moja dva najljubša ameriška romana: The Heart Is A Lonely Hunter Carsona McCullerja in A Confederation of Dunces Johna Kennedyja Toola. Toda nobena regija ni ustvarila bolj odmevne literature, ki bi bila edinstveno identificirana z ameriškim življenjem kot Nova Anglija.

Medtem ko je The Natural History of Uncas Metcalfe Betsey Osborne postavljena v zvezni državi New York, je njen roman Nova Anglija, ki črpa in interpretira klasične regionalne teme. Že na začetku sem začutil njeno Sparto v New Yorku, ki je zamenljiva z estetskim in mestnim značajem vsakega izginjajočega in idiličnega novo angleškega zaselka. Njeni liki so v njenem majhnem mestu New York tako domači, kot bi bili recimo v Empire Falls Richarda Russa, Maine.

Nova Anglija kot literarni konstrukt temelji na paradoksih.

Paradoks #1: Napredek ali vrnitev. Tema se zdi tako globoka kot čas, ki je bil izražen v zahodni filozofiji in literaturi. Ta paradoks je našel svoj ameriški dom v Novi Angliji, ki se ponaša z zgodovino, ki si močno nasprotuje.

Ko sem bil otrok, ko nisem smel spati v jutranjih urah, kar je bilo moje nagnjenje, sem v nedeljskem jutru CBS ujel izrazit kulturni glas Charlesa Kuralta. Zlasti so me navdušila nekoliko klišejska poročila, ki so jih v obliki video razglednic poslali različni komentatorji iz vse države. Spomnim se več kot enega takega segmenta, na katerem je nek sredovečen fant v kombinezonu stal na nekem skoraj opuščenem novomeškem angleškem mestnem trgu. Stal bi na tlakovanih kamnitih ulicah z naobrnjenim robom, raztresenim na posnetku, z zlomljeno uro na ostrem stolpu za njim. Kamero bi oboževal z ljudskimi zgodbami o mestih, ki so nekoč uspevala zaradi oddaljenih tovarn ali mlinov in podjetij v lokalni lasti. Z ameriškim napredkom je prišlo do propada tradicionalne industrije in s tem do propada skupnosti novih angleških modrih ovratnikov, ki so se zmanjšale na to, da se borijo za preživetje, medtem ko so skupaj posegale po receptih za boj proti depresiji. Mala in neodvisna podjetja so postopoma prehitela krepitev interesov podjetij, ki so uspevala v gospodarstvih obsega na oddaljenih območjih, saj so mesta in trgi propadali.

Osbornov naslovni lik, Uncas Metcalfe, sin ugledne družine, ki je nekoč imela obleko na kmetiji, je profesor botanike, ki je v nasprotju s spreminjajočim se obrazom Sparte v New Yorku. Pričakovan je sprejeti spremembe: ponavljajoča se tema v novi angleški literaturi, ki daje regionalni občutek z razpadajočimi središči in bogatimi opisi veličastnih, a čudnih zunanjih nastavitev.

Paradoks #2: Narava kot lik in nastavitev. Nova angleška književnost prehaja tanko mejo med počlovečenjem narave in njeno uporabo kot opisno okolje. »[Uncas Metcalfe] se je ozrl na sneg pokrite smreke in ne prvič pomislil, da bi se morda bolje odrezal kot drevo. Nihče ni pričakoval, da bodo drevesa razvrstila razbitine potlačene zgodovine. " Osbourne, tako kot drugi novoengleski pisatelji, dovoljuje svojim junakom lete fantazij, ki temeljijo na naravi, le da se hitro vrnejo k tisti klasični, preprosti, kljubovalni praktični in tihi naravi ljudi Nove Anglije.

Paradoks #3: optimizem in strast proti izolaciji in samozadostnosti. Osbourne prikazuje družino, ki jo je poškodba odvrnila od postelje. Hkrati je optimistična, kljubovalna in kul, oddaljena. Ena od hčera hodi po meji med hladnokrvnostjo in strastjo Nove Anglije.

Paradoks št. 4: lastna smrt. Nova angleška književnost je napovedovala njen propad in se soočila s smrtjo, saj so vseprisotne besede "Nevermore" napolnile strani Poove pajčevine in temne Nove Anglije. Mraz je imel rezervne brezove veje, ki so zasenčile življenje. Tema smrti prežema teme Nove Anglije kot konstrukta. Morda je zaradi močnejšega razvoja političnih dogodkov postala močnejša.

Ker je trpeči Ted Kennedy ostal močan, kljubovalno utelešenje stroge Nove Anglije, da bi prešel politični plašč iz svoje kraljeve družine v »novo bogastvo« ameriške politike, začenši z Barackom Obamo, si ne morem pomagati, da ne bi pomislil, da je Nova Anglija, oslonac ameriškega liberalizma in preostale tradicije, umira, smrt je bila napovedana in še vedno pripovedovana v nežnih zgodbah o izgubi in napredku v literaturi Nove Anglije.

Osbournova knjiga je trdno nadaljevanje najboljše ameriške literarne tradicije. Knjiga se ne ujema z rezervno poezijo Frosta ali Poeja ali obsežno zgodovinsko perspektivo Russa, kdo pa to stori? Osbourne pričara žive znake v znanem in tolažljivem okolju. Na koncu je to res dobra knjiga.
. več


Uncas ScStr - Zgodovina

KRISTOGEM

Vloženo: 19. maja 1928
KLJUČNI OBROČI, VEZALNICI, VZDRŽEVALNIKI, VZMETNI OBROČI, SPREZEMNICE ZA VEZE, GUMBI ZA PAPERJE, BROŠKE IN VERIGE, VSE KOT & hellip
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 71266694

KIDDIEGEM

Vloženo: 31. december 1934
NAKIT ZA OSEBNO OBLIKO IN Okrasitev, VKLJUČNO Z URAMI
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 71359818

MODNI NAKITI

Vloženo: 29. januar 1949
NAKIT ZA OSEBNO Okrasitev, NE VKLJUČUJUČI URE, NARAVNE, VARE, NAREČNICE, OGREVKE, PINKE IN UHANE
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 71542688

OSEBNOST

Vloženo: 28. november 1947
NAKIT ZA OSEBNO Okrasitev, NE VKLJUČUJUČI URE, NARAVNE, VARE, NAREČNICE, OGREVKE, PINKE IN UHANE
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 71542690

STYLECRAFT

Vloženo: 28. november 1947
NAKIT ZA OSEBNO Okrasitev, NE VKLJUČUJUČI URE, NARAVNE, VARE, NAREČNICE, OGREVKE, PINKE IN UHANE
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 71542692

STYLECRAFT KAMENI

Vloženo: 28. november 1947
NAKIT ZA OSEBNO Okrasitev, NE VKLJUČUJUČI URE, NARAVNE, VARE, NAREČNICE, OGREVKE, PINKE IN UHANE
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 71542693

STILERIT

Vloženo: 28. november 1947
NAKIT ZA OSEBNO Okrasitev, NE VKLJUČUJUČI URE, NARAVE, MREŽE, NAREČNICE, OGREVKE, PINKE IN UHANE
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 71542694

Vloženo: 20. december 1947
NAKIT ZA OSEBNO OBLAČILO ALI Okras
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 71545052

CORONADO

Vloženo: 7. september 1955
MOŠKI NAKIT
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 71694343

RING-O-RAMA

Vloženo: 20. februar 1959
OTROK ZASLONA ZA PRSTENE
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 72068181

RING-O-RAMA

Vloženo: 23. november 1965
PRSTNI PRSTENI
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 72233201

VINCENZO

Vloženo: 23. november 1966
ŽENSKI NAKIT ZA Osebno nošenje in okras
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 72259289

KRŠČANSKA DEDIŠČINA

Vloženo: 19. maja 1967
NAKIT ZA Osebno nošenje in okras
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 72271897

UNICITE

Vloženo: 12. junij 1967
NAKIT ZA OSEBNO OBLIKO IN Okrasitev, NE VKLJUČUJUČI URE
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 72273573

ZVEZDE LUČI

Vloženo: 16. april 1971
NAKIT ZA OSEBNO OBLIKOVANJE IN Okrasitev s simulacijo zvezdnih kamnov
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 72389343

UNCACLAD

Vloženo: 23. november 1979
Prstni prstani, izdelani v celoti ali delno iz plemenitih kovin
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 73240127

Vloženo: 12. maj 1980
Ženski nakit v celoti ali delno iz plemenitih kovin
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 73261538

KYOTO

Vloženo: 2. november 1981
Nakit za osebno okrasitev
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 73335092

Vloženo: 6. september 1983
Bižuterija
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 73442725

CURTIS CREATIONS

Vloženo: 19. september 1983
Bižuterija
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 73444151

JENLARI

Nakit
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 77350295

TISHA LEE

Nakit
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 78771309

JUILLIET

Nakit
Lasti: Podjetje Uncas Manufacturing
Serijska številka: 85059532


Uncasov preskok

Uncas Leap, znan tudi kot Indian Leap ali Yantic Falls, ki ga je mesto Norwich pridobilo leta 2010, ima območje zgodovinski pomen za skupnost in je od leta 1643. ostal sveti del zgodovine plemena Mohegan. Reka je kraj kulminacije bitke za Velike ravnice med Moheganom. Preberi več

Uncas Leap, znan tudi kot Indian Leap ali Yantic Falls, se nahaja na ulici Yantic 196-200 v Norwichu. Območje, ki ga je mesto Norwich pridobilo leta 2010, ima za skupnost zgodovinski pomen in je ostalo sveti del zgodovine plemena Mohegan od leta 1643. Mejnik 1,2 hektarja ob reki Yantic je kraj kulminacije bitke pri Veliki Ravnine med plemeni Mohegan in Narragansett. Mesto se ponaša z ruševinami iz 19. stoletja, neverjetno sotesko in osupljivim slapom.

Trenutno je spletno mesto odprto vse leto in je v postopku razvijanja kot park, namenjen spominu na vrhunec bitke pri Great Plains, pomembne bitke Indijancev. Poleg tega se spletno mesto razvija, da bi poudarilo pomembno dediščino plemena Mohegan in zgodovino proizvodnje mesta. Nepremičnina je v lasti mesta Norwich in je idealen kraj za obisk pustolovca "s poti".

Na spletnem mestu se lahko obiskovalci povežejo s Heritage Trail in Uncas Leap Trail, ki je del sistema Walk Norwich Trail. Heritage Trail je 2,8 milj dolga pot ob reki Yantic, ki povezuje zgodovinsko središče mesta Norwich, CT do Uncas Leap. Deli spletnega mesta, ki ponujajo pogled na vodo, so dostopni invalidskim vozičkom. Nekateri deli poti vključujejo strm naklon, kar je za nekatere obiskovalce lahko izziv. Pot Uncas Leap vsebuje bogato zgodovino domorodnega plemena Mohegan v jugovzhodnem Connecticutu, vključno z legendarno bitko s plemenom Narragansett, prijateljskim odnosom plemena z zgodnjimi naseljenci Norwicha (ta bližnji odnos obstaja danes) in ključnimi svetimi kraji. Ravna pot je približno 1 miljo nazaj in obiskovalci se lahko sprehodijo po pločniku, da se povežejo z zgodovinskimi kraji vzdolž Uncasove prestopne poti.

Cenitev: Prost.

Datumi delovanja: Odprto za javnost vse leto od zore do mraka


Vsebina

V času Cooperjevega pisanja so ameriški naseljenci verjeli in ohranili mit, da domorodni Američani izginjajo, saj so verjeli, da bodo na koncu asimilirani ali popolnoma ubiti zaradi genocidne strukture naseljenskega kolonializma. [5] Zlasti na vzhodu, ko so zemljo staroselcev ukradli in naselili v imenu širitve ZDA in jeffersonskega agrarizma, je pripoved, da so številni domorodci »izginili«, prevladovala tako v romanih, kot so Cooperjevi in ​​lokalni časopisi. [6] [7] To je naseljencem omogočilo, da so sebe videli kot prvotne prebivalce dežele, in okrepilo njihovo vero v evropsko etnično in rasno superiornost, med drugim tudi po načelih znanstvenega rasizma. [8] Na ta način se je Cooper zanimal za ameriško pripoved o napredku, ko je več kolonistov povečevalo pritisk na Indijance, kar bi oni in Cooper potem imeli za "naravno".

Cooper je odraščal v Cooperstownu v New Yorku, ki ga je njegov oče ustanovil na takratni meji na zahodni meji, ki se je razvila po vojni za neodvisnost.

Cooper je ta roman postavil med sedemletno vojno, mednarodni konflikt med Veliko Britanijo in Francijo, ki je imel fronto v Severni Ameriki, ki so jo angloameriški kolonisti poznali kot francosko in indijsko vojno. Konflikt je združil ameriške naseljence in minimalne redne sile proti kraljevskim francoskim silam, pri čemer sta se obe strani opirali tudi na indijanske zaveznike. Vojna je potekala predvsem vzdolž meja britanskih kolonij od Virginije do Nove Škotske.

Spomladi 1757 je podpolkovnik George Monro postal poveljnik garnizona Fort William Henry, ki se nahaja na jezeru George (New York) v provinci New York. V začetku avgusta je generalmajor Louis-Joseph de Montcalm s 7.000 vojaki oblegal trdnjavo. 2. avgusta je general Webb, ki je poveljeval območju iz svoje baze v Fort Edward južno od jezera, poslal 200 rednih in 800 milic iz Massachusettsa, da bi okrepil garnizon v Williamu Henryju. V romanu je to reliefna kolona, ​​s katero potujejo Monrove hčere.

Monro je 3. avgusta poslal glasnike na jug v Fort Edward, ki so zahtevali okrepitev, vendar Webb ni hotel poslati nobenega od svojih približno 1.600 mož na sever, ker so bili ti vsi med Francozi in Albanyjem. Munru je 4. avgusta pisal, da bi se moral pogajati o najboljših možnih pogojih, da so to komunikacijo prestregli in dostavili Montcalmu. V Cooperjevi različici je sporočilo nosil Bumppo, ko je skupaj z njim padel v francoske roke.

7. avgusta je Montcalm poslal možje v utrdbo pod zastavo premirja, da so dostavili Webbovo pošiljko. Do takrat so bili zidovi utrdbe porušeni, številne njene puške so bile neuporabne, garnizon pa je imel velike žrtve. Po drugem dnevu bombardiranja s strani Francozov je Monro dvignil belo zastavo in se pogojno umaknil.

Ko se je umik začel, so nekateri indijski zavezniki Montcalma, jezni zaradi izgubljene priložnosti za plen, napadli britansko kolono. Cooperjevo poročilo o napadu in posledicah je neumno in nekoliko netočno. Podrobna rekonstrukcija dejanja in njegovih posledic kaže, da je končna številka pogrešanih in mrtvih Britancev od 70 do 184 [9] več kot 500 Britancev ujetih.

Cora in Alice Munro, hčerki podpolkovnika Munra, potujeta z majorjem Duncanom Heywardom iz Fort Edwarda v Fort William Henry, kjer Munro poveljuje, in si pridružita drugega spremljevalca pri Davidu Gamutu, učitelju petja. Skozi gozd jih vodi domačin Magua, ki jih vodi po bližnjici brez spremstva britanske milice. Heyward je nezadovoljen z bližnjico Magua, zabava pa se vodi brez vodenja in se končno pridruži Nattyju Bumppu (znanemu kot Hawk-eye), taborniku za Britance in njegovim dvema mohikanskima prijateljema, Chingachgooku in njegovemu sinu Uncasu. Heyward postane sumljiv do Mague, Jastrebno oko in Mohikanci pa se strinjajo z njegovim sumom, da je Magua tabornik Huronov, ki je na skrivaj povezan z Francozi. Ob odkritju kot takem Magua pobegne in v (pravilnem) prepričanju, da se bo Magua vrnila s okrepitvijo Hurona, Jastrebno oko in Mohikanci popeljejo svoje nove spremljevalce v skrito jamo na otoku v reki. Tam jih napadajo Huroni in njihovo strelivo je kmalu izčrpano. Ker vedo, da bodo takoj ubiti, a da bo angleška stran ugnala dragocene ujetnike, Jastrebno oko in Mohikane, z obljubo, da se bodo vrnili po tovariše.

Magua in Huroni zajamejo Heyward, Gamut in sestre Munro. Magua priznava, da se želi maščevati proti Corinemu očetu, polkovniku Munru, ker ga je spremenil v alkoholika z viskijem (zaradi česar so ga začasno izgnali iz Huronov) in ga nato na mestu zaradi šibkega vedenja šibali. Ponuja, da zabavo prihrani, če Cora postane njegova žena, a ona to zavrne. Po drugi zavrnitvi obsojence obsodi na smrt. Jastrebno oko in Mohikanci rešujejo vse štiri in jih pripeljejo do dotrajane stavbe, ki je bila pred nekaj leti vpletena v bitko med Huroni in Britanci. Skoraj jih spet napadejo, a Huroni zapustijo območje, namesto da bi motili grobove svojih rojakov.

Naslednji dan Hawk-eye vodi zabavo v Fort Henry, mimo obleganja francoske vojske. Munro pošlje Hawk-eye v Fort Edward za okrepitev, vendar ga ujamejo Francozi, ki ga dostavijo v Fort Henry brez pisma. Heyward se vrne k polkovniku Munru in objavi svojo ljubezen do Alice, Munro pa mu dovoli dovoljenje za Heywardovo dvorjenje. Francoski general Montcalm povabi Munra na sestanek in mu pokaže pismo generala Webba, v katerem je britanski general zavrnil okrepitev. Ob tem se Munro strinja z Montcalmovimi pogoji: da morajo britanski vojaki skupaj s svojimi ženskami in otroki zapustiti trdnjavo in se za osemnajst mesecev umakniti iz vojne. Zunaj trdnjave je kolono britanskih evakuiranih izdalo in zasedilo 2000 huronskih bojevnikov v pokosu, ki je sledil, Magua ugrabi Coro in Alice ter jih vodi proti vasi Huron z Davidom Gamutom v zasledovanju.

Jastrebno oko, Mohikanci, Heyward in polkovnik Munro preživijo pokol in se odpravijo slediti Magui ter prečkati jezero, da bi mu prestregli pot. Na obali jezera naletijo na skupino Huronov, ki opazijo popotnike. Sledi lov s kanuji, v katerem reševalci pridejo na kopno, preden jih lahko Huroni ubijejo, in na koncu sledijo Magui do vasi Huron. Tu najdejo Gamuta (ki so ga Huroni prej prihranili kot neškodljivega norca), ki pravi, da je Alice v tej vasi, Cora pa v eni, ki pripada Lenapeju (Delaware).

Preoblečen v francoskega zdravnika, Heyward z Gamutom vstopi v vas Huron, da bi rešil Alice Hawk-eye in Uncas, ki se je odločil rešiti Coro, Munro in Chingachgook pa ostajata na varnem. Uncasa Huroni ujamejo in pustijo stradati, ko zdrži mučenje, Heyward pa ne najde Alice. Huronski bojevnik prosi Heywarda, naj ozdravi njegovo norko, oba pa jih prestreže Jastrebčevo oko v podobi medveda. Vstopijo v jamo, kjer hranijo noro, in bojevnik odide. Kmalu po razkritju njegove identitete Heywardu ga spremlja Jastrebno oko in najdejo Alice. Odkrije jih Magua, a ga Jastrebno oko premaga in pustijo privezanega na steno. Nato Heyward pobegne z Alice, Jastrebčevo oko pa rešuje Uncasa. Gamut prepriča Hurona, da dovoli njemu in njegovemu čarobnemu medvedu (Hawk-eye v preobleki), da se približata Uncasu, in ga odvežeta. Uncas se preobleče v medveda, Jastrebno oko nosi Gamutova oblačila, Gamut pa ostane v kotu in posnema Uncasa. Uncas in Hawk-eye pobegneta s potovanjem v vas Delaware, kjer držijo Coro, prav tako kot Huroni, ki sumijo, da je nekaj narobe, in najdejo Magua zvezanega v jami. Magua pove svojemu plemenu celotno zgodbo o prevari Heyward in Hawkeye, preden prevzame vodenje Huronov, ki se zaobljubijo maščevanja.

Uncas in Hawk-eye so zaprti skupaj z Alice, Coro in Heywardom pri Delawares. Magua vstopi v vas Delaware in zahteva vrnitev zapornikov. Na naslednji seji sveta je Uncas razkrit kot Mohikanec, nekoč prevladujoče pleme, tesno povezano z Delawares. Tamenund, modrec Delawarov, se postavi na stran Uncasa in osvobodi zapornike, razen Core, ki jo po plemenskih navadah podeli Magui. Zaradi tega je obračun med Huroni in Delawares neizogiben, toda v skladu z gostoljubnimi zakoni Tamenund daje Magui tri ure prednosti pred zasledovanjem. Medtem ko se Delawares pripravljata na boj, David Gamut pobegne iz vasi Huron in svojim tovarišem pove, da je Magua svoje ljudi postavil v gozd med vasi Huron in Delaware. Neodločeni, Uncas, Hawkeye, Heyward, Gamut in Delawares se odpravijo v gozd v boj proti Huronom.

V bitki, ki je sledila, se Delawarom pridružijo Chingachgook in Munro, ki na koncu premagajo Hurone in zavzamejo njihovo vas, vendar Magua pobegne s Coro in še dvema Huronoma Uncas, Hawk-eye, Heyward in Gamut jih preganja do visoke gore . V boju na robu pečine eden od Huronov ubije Coro, Gamut ubije enega od Huronov, Magua ubije Uncasa, Hawkeye pa Magua. The novel concludes with a lengthy account of the funerals of Uncas and Cora at the Delaware village, and Hawk-eye reaffirms his friendship with Chingachgook. Tamenund prophesies: "The pale-faces are masters of the earth, and the time of the red-men has not yet come again. "

    (usually pronounced / tʃ ɪ ŋ ˈ ɡ æ tʃ . ɡ uː k / , chin- GATCH -gook): last chief of the Mohican tribe, escort to the Munro sisters. Father to Uncas, and after his death, the eponymous "Last of the Mohicans". His name was an Unami Delaware word meaning "Big Snake". [10]
  • Uncas – the son of Chingachgook and called by him "Last of the Mohicans", as there were no pure-blooded Mohican women for him to marry. [11] He is also known as Le Cerf Agile, the Bounding Elk. : Œil de Faucon a frontiersman who becomes an escort to the Munro sisters. Known to the Indians and the French as la Longue carabine for his marksmanship and signature weapon. ( / ˈ m æ ɡ w ɑː / , MAG -wah) – the villain: a Huron chief driven from his tribe for drunkenness known as le Renard subtil ("Sly Fox").
  • Cora Munro: a dark-haired daughter of Colonel Munro serious, intelligent, and calm in the face of danger. Her mother, whom Munro met and married in the West Indies, was a mulatto or mixed-race woman, [12] described as "descended, remotely" from slaves. [13] Scholars have sometimes termed Cora a quadroon, but Cooper may have imagined her with even less African ancestry. Diane Roberts described Cora as "the first tragic mulatta in American literature." [14] Cora's mother died when she was young.
  • Alice Munro: Cora's blonde half-sister cheerful, playful, frail, and charming. She is the daughter of Alice Graham, Munro's second wife. : a British army colonel in command of Fort William Henry.
  • Duncan Heyward – a British army major from Virginia who falls in love with Alice Munro. [15][16]
  • David Gamut: a psalmodist (teacher of psalm-singing), known as "the singing master". – Colonel Munro's commanding officer, who takes command at Fort Edward.
  • General Marquis de Montcalm – the French commander-in-chief, called by the Huron and other Indian allies of the French as "The great white father of the Canadas." – An ancient, wise, and revered Delaware (Lenape) sage, who has outlived three generations of warriors.

According to Susan Fenimore Cooper, the author's eldest daughter, Cooper first conceived the idea for the book while visiting the Adirondack Mountains in 1825 with a party of English gentlemen. [17] The party passed through the Catskills, an area with which Cooper was already familiar, and about which he had written in his first novel featuring Natty: The Pioneers. They passed on to Lake George and Glens Falls.

Impressed with the caves behind the falls, one member of the party suggested that "here was the very scene for a romance." Susan Cooper says that Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, made this remark. Cooper promised Stanley "that a book should be written, in which these caves should have a place the idea of a romance essentially Indian in character then first suggesting itself to his mind." [18]

Cooper began work on the novel immediately. He and his family stayed for the summer in a cottage belonging to a friend, situated on the Long Island shore of the Sound, opposite Blackwell's Island, not far from Hallett's Cove (the area is now part of Astoria). He wrote quickly and completed the novel in the space of three or four months. He suffered a serious illness thought to have been brought on by sunstroke [18] and, at one point, he dictated the outline of the fight between Magua and Chingachgook (12th chapter), to his wife, who thought that he was delirious. [17]

In the novel, Hawkeye refers to Lake George as the Horican. Cooper felt that Lake George was too plain, while the French name, Le Lac du St. Sacrement, was "too complicated". Horican he found on an old map of the area it was a French transliteration of a native group who had once lived in the area. [19]

Cooper grew up in Cooperstown, New York, the frontier town founded by his father. His daughter said that as a young man he had few opportunities to meet and talk with Native Americans: "occasionally some small party of the Oneidas, or other representatives of the Five Nations, had crossed his path in the valley of the Susquehanna River, or on the shores of Lake Ontario, where he served when a midshipman in the navy." [17] He read what sources were available at the time—Heckewelder, Charlevoix, William Penn, Smith, Elliot, Colden, Lang, Lewis and Clark, and Mackenzie.

By using the name Uncas for one of his characters, he seemed to confuse the two regional tribes: the Mohegan of Connecticut, of which Uncas had been a well-known sachem, and the Mohican of upstate New York. The popularity of Cooper's book helped spread the confusion. [20] [21]

In the period when Cooper was writing, deputations from the Western tribes frequently traveled through the region along the Mohawk River, on their way to New York or Washington, D.C. He made a point of visiting these parties as they passed through Albany and New York. On several occasions, he followed them to Washington to observe them for longer. He also talked to the military officers and interpreters who accompanied them. [17]

The novel was first published in 1826 by Carey & Lea, of Philadelphia. According to Susan Cooper, its success was "greater than that of any previous book from the same pen" and "in Europe, the book produced quite a startling effect." [17]

Over time the book grew to be regarded by some as the first Great American Novel. [22] It was not always the case. Cooper's novels were popular in their day, but contemporary and subsequent 19th-century reviewers were often critical, or dismissive. For example, the reviewer of the London Magazine (May 1826) described the novel as "clearly by much the worst of Mr. Cooper's performances." [23] Mark Twain notably derided the author in his essay "Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offenses", published in Severnoameriški pregled (July 1895). Twain complained that Cooper lacked a variety of styles and was overly wordy. In the early 1940s Twain scholar Bernard DeVoto found that there was more to the essay, and pieced together a second one from the extra writing, titled "Fenimore Cooper's Further Literary Offenses," in which Twain re-writes a small section of The Last of the Mohicans, claiming that Cooper, "the generous spendthrift", used 100 "extra and unnecessary words" in the original version. [24]

Re-reading the book in his later years, Cooper noted some inconsistencies of plot and characterization, particularly the character of Munro. But, he wrote that in general, "the book must needs have some interest for the reader since it could amuse even the writer, who had in a great measure forgotten the details of his work." [17]

The Last of the Mohicans has been James Fenimore Cooper's most popular work. It has influenced popular opinion about American Indians and the frontier period of eastern American history. The romanticized images of the strong, fearless, and ever-resourceful frontiersman (i.e., Natty Bumppo), as well as the stoic, wise, and noble "red man" (i.e., Chingachgook), were notions derived from Cooper's characterizations more than from anywhere else. [25] The phrase, "the last of the Mohicans", has come to represent the sole survivor of a noble race or type. [26]

V M*A*S*H book, film and television franchise, the character Hawkeye Pierce is given his nickname by his father, after Hawk-eye from The Last of the Mohicans. [27] A main character in the original novel and subsequent film adaptation, Hawkeye, as portrayed by Alan Alda, is the central character in the long-running TV series.

Films Edit

A number of films have been based on the lengthy book, making various cuts, compressions, and changes. The American adaptations include:

  • Leather Stocking (1909) directed by David Wark Griffith
  • The Last of the Mohicans a 1911 version starring James Cruze directed by Theodore Marston,
  • The Last of the Mohicans (1920), starring Wallace Beery
  • The Last of the Mohicans (1932), a serial version starring Harry Carey
  • The Last of the Mohicans (1936) starring Randolph Scott and Bruce Cabot
  • Last of the Redmen (1947) starring Jon Hall and Michael O'Shea
  • The Iroquois Trail (1950) starring George Montgomery
  • Fall of the Mohicans (1965) starring Jack Taylor, José Marco (José Joandó Roselló), Luis Induni and Daniel Martin
  • The Last of the Mohicans (1968) (1977)
  • The Last of the Mohicans (1992), starring Daniel Day-Lewis.

The 1920 film has been deemed "culturally significant" by the Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry. According to the director Michael Mann, his 1992 version was based more on the 1936 film version. Mann believes Cooper's novel is "not a very good book", taking issue with Cooper's sympathy for the Euro-Americans and their seizure of the American Indians' domain. [28]

In Germany, Der Letzte der Mohikaner, with Béla Lugosi as Chingachgook, was the second part of the two-part Lederstrumpf film released in 1920. Der Letzte Mohikaner directed by Harald Reinl was a 1965 West German/Italian/Spanish co-production setting elements of the story in the era after the American Civil War. Based on the same series of the novels, Chingachgook die große Schlange (Chingachgook the Great Serpent), starring Gojko Mitić as Chingachgook, appeared in East Germany in 1967, and became popular throughout the Eastern Bloc.

Radio Edit

  • The Last of the Mohicans was adapted for radio in two one-hour episodes directed by Michael Fox and broadcast on BBC Radio 4 in 1995 (subsequently on BBC Radio 7), with Michael Fiest, Philip Franks, Helen McCrory, and Naomi Radcliffe.

TV Edit

  • There was a Canadian TV series, Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans in 1957 with John Hart as Hawkeye and Lon Chaney, Jr. as Chingachgook.
  • The BBC made a TV serial of the book in 1971, with Philip Madoc as Magua, Kenneth Ives as Hawkeye and John Abineri as Chingachgook, which some critics believe to be the most faithful and the best adaptation.
  • In a 1977 American made-for-TV movie, Steve Forrest starred as Hawkeye with Ned Romero as Chingachgook and Don Shanks as Uncas. produced an American TV series in 1994-95 called Hawkeye, created by Kim LeMasters and filmed in Canada. It ran for one season, with 22 episodes, and starred Lee Horsley, Lynda Carter, and Rodney A. Grant.
  • From 2004–2007, the RAI made an animated TV series, Last of the Mohicans with Ted Russof as Uncas, Katie McGovern as Cora, and Flaminia Fegarotti as Alice.

Opera Edit

Alva Henderson's operatic version premiered in Wilmington, Delaware in 1976. [29]

In 1977, Lake George Opera presented the same work. [30]

Comics Edit

Classic Comics #4, The Last of the Mohicans, first published 1942.

Marvel Comics has published two versions of the story: in 1976 a one-issue version as part of their Marvel Classics Comics series (issue #13). In 2007, they published a six-issue mini-series to start the new Marvel Illustrated serije.

Famed manga artist Shigeru Sugiura wrote and illustrated a very loose manga adaptation of the story in 1952-3 (remade in 1973-4). This adaptation is heavily influenced by American movies and western comics and is filled with absurd humor and anachronistic jokes. An English translation of Sugiura's 1973-4 version including a lengthy essay on Sugiura's artistic influences was published in the United States in 2013. [31]


Pequot/Mohegan Indians of Connecticut

He became grand sachem after sachem Tatobem was killed in 1632.
The Mohegans under the sachem Uncas rebelled against the Pequot's authority. Sassacus and the Pequots were defeated by the English in the Pequot War. Sassacus fled to what he thought was safety among the Mohawks. But he was murdered by the Mohawks in present day New York, and his scalp was sent to the British as a symbolic offering of friendship with the Connecticut Colony.

note* SACHEM
Pronunciation: ˈsā-chəm, ˈsa-
Function: noun
Etymology: Narragansett sâchim
Date: 1622
1 : a North American Indian chief especially : the chief of a confederation of the Algonquian tribes of the North Atlantic coast

Barryguevremont

Pequot Plantation: the story of an early colonial settlement
By Richard A. Radune

Barryguevremont

Uncas: first of the Mohegans By Michael Leroy Oberg

Barryguevremont

[ame="http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1889758027/nativelangu01-20"]Amazon.com: A Vocabulary of Mohegan-Pequot (American Language Reprints) (9781889758022): John Dyneley Prince, Frank G. Speck: [email protected]@[email protected]@http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/[email protected]@[email protected]@31GHVVBMJFL[/ame]

Barryguevremont

Barryguevremont

History of the Indians of Connecticut from the Earliest Known Period to 1850.
by John W. DeForest
pages 66-67, Hartford, 1853
"The names of some of the early sachems of this tribe have been preserved in a genealogy of the Uncas family, as it was made out by Uncas himself in 1679. The first whose name is mentioned was Tamaquashad, of whom no particulars are given, but who must have lived about the time when the Pequots first established themselves in Connecticut, or perhaps when they first set out on their pilgrimage from the Hudson. The next in succession was Muckquntdowas, who lived at a place call Awcumbucks, situated in the heart of the Pequot country. His wife was named Meekunump, and he had two children Woipeguand, who became sachem after him and a daughter, called like her mother, Meekunump, who was married to Oweneco, the father of Uncas. Woipeguand married a daughter of Wekoum, chief sachem of Narragansett and, when he died, was succeeded by his son, Wopigwooit. Wopigwooit was the same with that Wapequart mentioned by the Dutch authors, and undoubtedly, also, with that Pekoath, who is spoken of by Winthrop.* The son of Wopigwooit was Tatobam, otherwise called Sassacus, the most famous and the most unfortunate of the Pequot grand sachems.

About ten years previous to the war of the Pequots with the English, that is about 1626, Uncas, the son of Oweneco and Meekunump, married a daughter of Sassacus, thus connecting himself still more closely with the royal line of his tribe. The claims which he in this manner acquired and strengthened, afterwards contributed to the downfall of his nation, but finally resulted in raising Uncas himself to considerable influence, and to independent power. In fact, this Uncas, son of Oweneco a Pequot sagamore, and father of another Oweneco like himself a Mohegan sachem, will be one of the most remarkable, and one of the most important characters, who ever will occupy a place in the succeeding narrative.

Thus closes my account of the names, positions and strength of the aboriginal tribes of Connecticut, as I have been able to gather it from what seemed the most reliable authorities.

* At the time Winthrop penned this, Connecticut had been settled and he probably mistook the name of the tribe for that of the chieftain. Such mistakes might easily occur in the intercourse between the English and the natives, neither of whom had much knowledge of each other's language. Pequot or Pequod is not, perhaps, more unlike Pekoath than it is to Pequin or Pequetan, by both which names this tribe is mentioned in early writings of New England."

Barryguevremont

HISTORY OF Montville, Connecticut
FORMERLY THE NORTH PARISH OF NEW LONDON
FROM 1640 to 1800
HENRY A. BAKER 1896

It is claimed by historians that the Pequots and Mohegans
were apparently of the same race with the Mohicans or Mohi-
canders who Lived on the hanks of the Hudson. Not long
previous to 1600, it is supposed that these tribes resided among
their relations, and the probability is that they voluntarily
separated from the parenl t ribe on account of the want of room
tosupporl 30 large a population of hunters. Migrating towards
the east, they perhaps moved along the middle or southern
part of Massachusetts until they crossed the Connecticut
river and then took a southern course and came upon the sea
shore. All the traditions of the Indians agree in the assertion
that they migrated from the north a short time previous to
the arrival of the English in this pari of the country.

Upon the arrival of the Pequots or Mohegans in tins part
of the country, they found themselves in possession of a large
extent of country and just adapted to their needs, a large tract
of hunting ground and abundance of shell, sea, and river fish.
but at the same time surrounded by hostile tribes, who pro-
tested against the invasion. The Pequots, being possessed of a
bold and venturous spirit, were not easily intimidated by their
enemies. They carried terror and trembling among the ad-
jacent tribes with whom they were often in deadly conflict.
The names of some of the early sachems of the Pequot tribe
have been preserved in a genealogy of the Uncas family as
it was made out by Uncas himself in 1679. The first whose
name is mentioned was Tamaquashad, who probably lived
about the time when the Pequots first established themselves
in what is now Connecticut. The next in succession was Muck-
qunt-do-was, who lived in a place called Awcumbucks, situated
in the heart of the Pequot country. He had two children, .

Barryguevremont

Barryguevremont

On the 20th of May, 1637, Mason at the head of ninetv
Englishmen and seventy Indians under Uncas embarked at
Hartford on board a pink, a pennace, and a shallop, and began
to drop down the river. The water was low, the vessels often
got aground, and at their own request the Indian allies were
set on shore to proceed to Saybrook by land. On their way
through the forest they fell in with thirty or forty of the enemy
and killed seven of them with no loss to themselves, except one
man wounded. The two parties arrived at Saybrook, when
the English were delighted by hearing of the exploits of Uncas,
which they looked upon as a sure pledge of his fidelity.

Lieutenant Lion Gardner, who was the commander of
the fort at Saybrook, was, however, suspicious of him, and
said to Mason, " How dare you trust the Mokegans who have
but a year come from the enemy ? " " We are forced to
trust him," replied the captain, " for we want them to guide
us." Gardner was still unsatisfied, and calling Uncas to him
he said, " You say you will help Captain Mason, but I will
first see it, therefore send twenty men to Bass river, for there
went last night six Indians there in a canoe. Fetch them dead
or alive, and you shall go with Mason, else you shall not."
Uncas did as he was required, his warriors found the enemy,
killed four of them and took another prisoner. This Indian
prisoner it appears had been a bold and cunning savage, and
now in his extremity he showed neither fear nor sorrow, but
dared his captors to do their worst. The Mohegans requested
permission to torture him and the English made no attempt to
save a man who had often assisted in the torture of their own
countrymen. Their mode of execution was of a most torturing
character. One of the captive's legs was tied to a post, a rope
was fastened to the other and twenty warriors pulled him
asunder.

The Pequots, under their chief Sassacus, had become bold
and hostile to the settlers. Much depredation had been com-
mitted by members of the tribe, cattle had been taken, crops
destroyed, and even children had been taken captives. A war
was determined upon and waged against them with a determina-
tion on the part of the English settlers either to subdue them
or exterminate them. A severe struggle followed, which
close was hastened by the capture of their forts on Pequot Hill
in Groton, and the destruction of the same by setting it on fire,
by which means many of the Pequot warriors, their women
and children, perished. Their chief, Sassacus, was soon forced
to flee for safety and took refuge in the country of the Mohawks,

Barryguevremont

but he did not, however, avoid his fate. The Mohawks,
moved, it was reported, by a bribe from the Narragansetts, per-
haps also by a desire of gratifying the English, fell upon him by
surprise and killed him, and the scalps of Sassacus, one of his
brothers, and five others were sent to Connecticut to convince
the English of the certain death of their brave enemy. To
greal and dearly decisive victory was on the night of the 26th
of May, 1637. In this severe conflict, Uncas took an impor-
tant part, as did also the Narragansetts. The day before the
encounter, as they were nearing the enemy's forts, many of
the Narragansetts who had joined the expedition began to ex-
hibit the fear in which they held the Pequots, and turned
back toward their homes, and others appeared to be in such
fear that ( laptain Mason, who Led the expedition, called Uncas
to him and asked him what he thought the Indians would do.
The brave sachem replied, " The Narragansetts will all leave
you, but as for myself, I will never leave you." For which
expression and I'm' some other speeches made previously by
Uncas, said .Mason in his account of the war, " I shall never
forgel him indeed, he was a great friend, and did us good
service."

Their last unavailing struggle was in a large swamp in the
present town of Fairfield, whither the main body of the Pequots
had taken refuge. This body of men, women, and children,
numbering several hundred souls, headed by Sassacus, fled
their own country and traveled slowly westward along the
southern boundary of Connecticut, crossed the Connecticut
river, and were overtaken by the English forces in Fairfield
swamp. At the close of the swamp fight, it was calculated that
seven hundred Pequots had been killed or captured, among
whom were thirteen sagamores of their nation, the others of
which it was reported there were thirteen probably perished
with their chieftain by the hands of the Mohawks. Broken
and dispirited, the Pequots now became an easy prey to their
enemies, and the Mohegans and Narragansetts continually
brought their heads or hands into the English settlement.


Mohegan

Naši uredniki bodo pregledali, kar ste oddali, in ugotovili, ali želite članek popraviti.

Mohegan, Algonquian-speaking North American Indian people who originally occupied most of the upper Thames valley in what is now Connecticut, U.S. They later seized land from other tribes in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. The Mohegan are not to be confused with the Mohican (Mahican), a different people who originally resided in the upper Hudson River Valley near the Catskill Mountains in what is now New York state.

The traditional Mohegan economy was based on the cultivation of corn (maize) and on hunting and fishing. At the time of the first European settlement of New England early in the 17th century, the Mohegan and the Pequot tribes were ruled jointly by the Pequot chief, Sassacus later a rebellion by the subchief Uncas led to Mohegan independence. After the destruction of the Pequot in 1637, most of the Pequot survivors and the former Pequot territories came under Mohegan control. Uncas strengthened his position by making an alliance with the English by the end of King Philip’s War against the colonists, the Mohegan were the strongest tribe remaining in southern New England. Colonial settlements gradually displaced the Mohegan, and their numbers dwindled from imported diseases and other hardships. Many of them joined other native settlements.

Population estimates indicated some 2,500 Mohegan descendants in the early 21st century.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Elizabeth Prine Pauls, Associate Editor.


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Komentarji:

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